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Young people account for 30% of the population in South Africa, with just under 15 million young people aged 10 – 24 years. Adolescence is considered a time of both risk and opportunity: When rapid physical and psychological changes may lead to a rise in risk behaviour, substance abuse, sexual and reproductive health problems, violence and mental illness.2 Adolescent health and behaviour are also key determinants of the adult burden of disease. It is therefore critical to invest in youth friendly services that promote physical and mental health, and enable young people to successfully navigate the challenges of adolescence and take on adult responsibilities.
Young people experience a range of barriers that limit their access to healthcare services including transport costs, clinic hours clashing with school timetables, negative attitudes from healthcare workers and a lack of privacy and confidentiality.
The rapid development of information and communication technology (ICTs) – particularly access to mobile phones – has the potential to address these challenges and improve young people’s access to health-related information and services, especially in poor, remote settings. The World Health Organisation has recognised how mobile health (m-health) programmes have the potential to bring services closer to adolescents by providing 24-hour access and confidential, anonymous and personalised interactions.
While there has been significant investment in m-health initiatives across Africa, little research has been done on how young people actually use mobile phones to seek healthcare – insight that is critical in understanding how the uptake of new ICTs might entrench and/or disrupt health inequalities. This research brief presents key findings from a study led by Durham Universityi to investigate the use of mobile phones amongst youth in Sub-Saharan Africa and considers the implications for policy and practice.
Cell phones present new forms of sociality and new possibilities of encounter for young people across the globe. Nowhere is this more evident than in sub-Saharan Africa where the scale of usage, even among the very poor, is remarkable.
This paper reflects on the inter-generational encounters which are embedded in young people’s cell phone interactions, and consider the wider societal implications, not least the potential for associated shifts in the generational balance of power. An intriguing feature of this changing generational nexus is that while many young people’s phone-based interactions, from their mid-teens onwards, are shifting away from the older generation towards friendship networks in their own age cohort, at the same time they are repositioning themselves – or becoming repositioned – as family information hubs, as a consequence of their phone expertise.
The paper draws on mixed-methods research with young people aged c. 9–25 years and in-depth interviews with older age-groups in 24 sites (ranging from high density poor urban to remote rural) across Ghana, Malawi and South Africa.
Evidence suggests that a generational power-struggle is being played out on a daily basis in many urban and rural homes across the continent: recourse to subterfuge is, on both sides, an inevitable response. With increasingly cheap, imported Chinese handsets and rapid reduction in phone-related costs, however, parental control is probably slipping, especially when young people (by virtue of their phone skills) take on – or are bestowed with – a hub role in family networks. There is limited evidence, for instance, of successful surveillance by elders, since young people’s phone competency increasingly contains surveillance efforts and associated supervision. The cell phone is changing the rules regarding who interacts with whom (and how). Cell phone diffusion thus arguably marks a significant step in the intergenerational power shift in Africa from disproportionately gerontocratic and patrimonial systems towards a new, increasingly technologically-shaped era where young people – of both genders – play a much more proactive role in society.
Young people's use of mobile phones is expanding exponentially across Africa. Its transformative potential is exciting, but findings presented in this paper indicate how the downside of mobile phone use in African schools is becoming increasingly apparent. Drawing on mixed-methods field research in 24 sites across Ghana, Malawi and South Africa and associated discussions with educational institutions, public policy makers and network providers, we examine the current state of play and offer suggestions towards a more satisfactory alignment of practice and policy which promotes the more positive aspects of phone use in educational contexts and militates against more damaging ones.
Through this paper, the authors aim to contribute to demands for a more substantial body of evidence in African contexts. Mixed-methods field research in 24 sites across Ghana, Malawi and South Africa and associated discussions with mobile phone network providers, educational institutions and policy makers suggests that while there are some positive aspects of mobile phone use for African pupils, their downside is also becoming increasingly apparent, especially in urban and peri-urban sites.
This research start with some background details (key literature, study methodology and phone ownership and usage), and then charts available evidence of positive educational value of mobile phones in the research sites before moving on to examine a range of negative impacts associated with youth (and teacher) practice. The paper then asks how, and to what extent, should and can public policy address issues such as phone-related classroom disruption (whether caused by pupil or teachers' phones), lengthy periods spent by young people on social network sites, disruption in adolescent sleep patterns associated with cheap night calls and widespread circulation of pornography? The final section of the paper considers the potential to address some of the most negative aspects of phone use in educational contexts and to promote more positive aspects through engagement with policy makers.
The expansion of mobile phone use in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly over the last five years, has been remarkable in terms of speed of adoption, spatial penetration and, not least, the fact that this is an essentially spontaneous development firmly embedded in private sector activity. Country-level adoption and usage rates suggest that, in many countries, mobile phone use, even in poor households, is rapidly becoming an everyday part of life. Much of this use is based on shared access, rather than ownership, but for millions of very poor children and young people1 the mobile phone is now perceived as an essential requisite: an object of desire and a symbol of success.
This paper we examine mobile phone use by young people across 24 sites in three countries, Ghana, Malawi and South Africa, drawing on intensive qualitative and survey research, and relate this to issues of gendered physical mobility.
Findings point to significant variations between the three study countries and between urban and rural locations within them. There is also, of course, variation within individual sites, since the circumstances of young people living in one neighbourhood can differ quite substantially, depending not only on gender and age but also on factors such as family structure and socio-economic circumstances.
Nonetheless, some trends can be discerned from this socio-spatial analysis which build on findings from earlier (often single site or single country) studies in Africa: in particular, the growing importance of phones as urban-rural connectors, enhancing resource flows and young people’s construction of network capital, and concerns about their less positive aspects, not least the potential for encouraging or supporting illicit activities such as robbery or possibly dangerous underage sexual liaisons.
Improving children and young people’s (CYP) wellbeing, and recognising the role they can play in creating a more sustainable world will be critical to meeting the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This timely report provides insights into how ESRC-DFID funded research has provided new knowledge that can inform and strengthen policy making in relation to CYP issues and help meet global development ambitions.
Key research findings:
Global Open Data for Agriculture and Nutrition (GODAN) advocates and supports the proactive sharing of open data to make information about agriculture and nutrition available, accessible and usable. The initiative focuses on building high-level support among governments, policymakers, international organisations and business and promotes collaboration and cooperation between stakeholders in the sector.
As part of this remit they compile and publish case studies documenting examples of successful use of Open Data to address agriculture and nutrition challenges. This brochure document brings together a collection of these success stories.
While big data has the potential to make a significant contribution to international development, that potential is currently constrained by a number of barriers. Systematic analysis of those barriers is rare, so this paper applies the design-reality gap model to identify and evaluate barriers to effective use of big data in one context: the Colombian public sector. The model provides a structured framework that exposes a broad set of barriers, and also helps highlight priority areas for action to accelerate the application of big data. The design-reality gap model can also be seen to provide the basis for related analyses such as readiness for big data, and risk identification for big data initiatives in developing countries.
An e-voucher uses a mobile delivery and tracking system to distribute subsidized agricultural inputs through agro-dealers/input suppliers to targeted farmers. Each beneficiary farmer’s e-card is linked to their specific name and National Registration Card (NRC) number. On confirmation of the transaction, an e-voucher allows instant electronic payment to agro-dealers/input suppliers’ online accounts for the inputs redeemed by the farmer.
This Brief looks at the example of Zambia which is in the process of reforming the Farmer Input Support Programme (FISP) to implement the subsidy program through a flexible electronic voucher.
Despite these successes, the e-voucher pilot was faced with challenges that threatened the successful implementation of the program. These included the following:
We live in a Digital Age that gives us instant access to information at greater and greater volumes. The rapid growth of digital content and tools is already changing how we create, consume and distribute knowledge. Even though globally participation in the Digital Age remains uneven, more and more people are accessing and contributing digital content every day. Over the next 15 years, developing countries are likely to experience sweeping changes in how states and societies engage with knowledge. These changes hold the potential to improve people’s lives by making information more available, increasing avenues for political and economic engagement, and making government more transparent and responsive. But they also carry dangers of a growing knowledge divide influenced by technology access, threats to privacy, and the potential loss of diversity of knowledge.
This research sets out with a 15-year horizon to look at the possible ways in which digital technologies might contribute to or damage development agendas, and how development practitioners and policymakers might best respond. We draw on secondary materials, but the bulk of this report draws on discussions, insights and opinions of a range of experts, which we gathered through a set of Foresight tools and processes. This included two workshops – one in London and one in Centurion, South Africa – and interviews. Workshop participants and interviewees were selected due to their familiarity with issues around different areas of digital technology, representing non-governmental organisations (NGOs), bilateral and multilateral development agencies, government bodies, universities, libraries, knowledge intermediaries, and businesses. The recommendations we arrived at were largely a result of analysis of the contributions from the workshops and interviews, though grounded in the secondary research.
Policy recommendations suggest general strategies that a range of actors can act on according to their mandates and strengths:
"As a result of the campaign, couples were motivated to communicate about health, and men and women were more likely to seek reproductive health services together."
This was one of the key results of the Vunja Ukimya. Zungumza na Mwenzio (Break the Silence. Talk to your partner) campaign in Tanzania. The campaign was launched in 2010 as part of the CHAMPION project, a six-year initiative (2008-2014) to increase men's positive involvement in preventing the spread of HIV in Tanzania. The 5-month national social and behaviour change communication (SBCC) campaign was designed to encourage couples to communicate more effectively for healthier, more equitable relationships and to prevent the spread of HIV. "Campaign messages focused on the role of gender equity in ensuring health, and targeted individuals, couples, and communities in promoting dialogue around HIV, gender equality, and positive health-seeking behavior." The brief forms part of a series of CHAMPION briefs to highlight some of the project's achievements.
The brief explains the campaign approach, which used radio, television, national newspapers, billboards, and outreach events and activities to reach audiences of adult men and women over the age of 25 and in established, longer-term relationships. The roll-out occurred in phases, beginning with a teaser phase, followed by a two month "problem phase" that also incorporated a World Cup sub-campaign, and then a "how to" phase, highlighting and demonstrating the health benefits of effective communication between partners. The messages focused on positive couple communication and used food as a metaphor for relationships, "indicating that both (dinner and happiness) require preparation and care to achieve the desired results."
The following are a selection of lessons learned:
Overall, the assessment of the Vunja Ukimya campaign was that it was widely well received, with community members responding positively to the promotion of couples being close and the concept of "transparency" within relationships.
This fifth volume of the mHealth Compendium, produced by the African Strategies for Health Project for the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), is a collection of 41 case studies submitted by various implementing partners which document a range of mHealth applications being implemented mainly throughout Africa, but also in other regions of the world. The majority of case studies focus on maternal, newborn and child health issues and HIV/AIDS, with some also looking at mHealth used to address tuberculosis, Ebola and malaria.
The case studies in this compendium have been organised into five programmatic areas where mHealth is being implemented: 1) Behaviour Change Communication; 2) Data Collection; 3) Finance; 4) Logistics; and 5) Service Delivery. Each two-page case study includes an introduction to the health area or problem; a description of the mHealth intervention highlighted; a description of any important results or evaluation findings; lessons learned; and a conclusion. In addition, the second page includes a summary of the geographic coverage, implementation partners, and donors, as well as contact information for the implementing partner and donor.
The mHealth Compendium Special Edition 2016: Reaching Scale presents ten in-depth profiles of mHealth programmes that have grown in scale over time. This edition follows on from a series of five mHealth Compendiums which were produced by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)’s Africa Bureau project, African Strategies for Health (ASH), to help USAID missions, governments, and health implementing organisations access information on a range of mHealth example programmes. The series (see Related Summaries below) features over 150 case studies of mHealth programmes and applications being implemented mainly throughout Africa, but also in other regions of the world.
Each case study includes details of the process, challenges, and lessons learned in growing an mHealth programme. The featured programmes are:
Electronic commerce or e-commerce, as it is more popularly referred to, is defined as any form of trade or exchange of goods, services and information using electronic means. Globally, the application of e-commerce has been rapidly gaining acceptance, particularly since the dot-com boom and bust in the 90s. The level of international acceptance and popularity among businesses, especially small businesses and entrepreneurs, is largely due to the ability of e-commerce to go beyond international boundaries and enable activities within the virtual marketplace. This enables entrepreneurs to do business internationally at relatively low cost.
The e-commerce sector is expected to fare particularly well in developing countries. This is perhaps more inevitable for a developing country like Bangladesh in which traffic jams and consequent restricted physical mobility can constitute a significant barrier to business growth. In the context of Bangladesh, although some e-commerce businesses have risen to prominence, the sector is still considered to be at an embryonic stage, and its contribution to economic growth is expected to increase exponentially, after the ongoing phase of customer familiarisation and comfort with e-commerce increases, and a reasonable market penetration is achieved.
This issue of the Working Paper Series on ICT for DevelopmentF seven articles that deal with ICT for Development in the fields of agriculture and commerce. Titles include:
The growth of African science and technology has been hampared by a multitude of problems. From the continent’s late start in the race to setting up and obtaining universities with research quality fundamentals to equipment acquisition, lack of capacity, limited research and development resources and most importantly the increasing absence of international research partnerships. The lack of a strong international research partnerships for the African university and research community, the fact that most African universities and research communities are new, most of them less than 50 years in business have exberted the expected academic growth of the African university and research.
With all these problems, two solutions are fundamental: a development of a strong government backed funding policy for the African university and research community and strong international partnerships and research infrastructure to support a culture of both applied and fundamental research to drive the badly needed indigineous innovations and development of a knowledge pool of skills for development. Without these, the African university and research will continue to be deligated to the tail end of the world class universities and research communities. This paper focuses on the building of an African international research infrastructure to bring the continent beyond today’s internent to a smart future.
Can digital information and communication technology (ICT) foster mass political mobilization? The authors use a novel geo-referenced dataset for the entire African continent between 1998 and 2012 on the coverage of mobile phone signal together with geo-referenced data from multiple sources on the occurrence of protests and on individual participation in protests to bring this argument to empirical scrutiny. They find that mobile phones are instrumental to mass mobilization during economic downturns, when reasons for grievance emerge and the cost of participation falls. Estimated effects are if anything larger once we use an instrumental variable approach that relies on differential trends in coverage across areas with different incidence of lightning strikes. The results are in line with insights from a network model with imperfect information and strategic complementarities in protest provision. Mobile phones make individuals more responsive to both changes in economic conditions – a mechanism that the authors ascribe to enhanced information – and to their neighbours’ participation – a mechanism that we ascribe to enhanced coordination. Empirically both effects are at play, highlighting the channels through which digital ICT can alleviate the collective action problem.
The role of Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) in economic growth is well accepted. Tracing the debate on the role of science in Indian society in the pre-1947 India, the discourses and narratives on science, technology and society in India are mapped and their impact on policies is discussed. However, in the backdrop of growing inequalities and access to technology the debate on technology and development has assumed greater policy relevance.
In this paper, the authors have used qualitative analysis and quantitative methods to discuss the issues in understanding and evaluating S&T policy in India and measuring access, equity and inclusion (AEI) through indicators. Although AEI as principles can be used for policy analysis and studying the impacts of S&T policies, the need for robust indicators is obvious. But the current indicators of impacts of S&T, or innovation indicators do not capture AEI nor consider them as important values to be measured. In development economics attempts are being made to measure inclusion and exclusion and to study marginalisation or marginality. The authors have constructed three indices using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) where weights in each index are the variances of successive principal components.
The paper suggests that research on AEI should become part of S&T policy process. It is suggested that in major technology initiatives and policy proposals 3 to 5 per cent of the proposed budgets could be allotted to such research. Another suggestion is to develop new methodologies and models, in the context of emerging technologies and S&T related indicators should be linked to socio-economic indicators.
Feminist Africa (FA) is a continental gender studies journal that provides a platform for intellectual and activist research, dialogue and strategy. Currently based in Cape Town, South Africa, FA is guided by a profound commitment to transforming gender hierarchies in Africa, and seeks to redress injustice and inequality in its content and design. In this edition, the journal brings together a number of different contributors and themes on the topic of feminist engagements with 21st-Century information and communication technologies (ICTs).
The edition opens with an editorial by Jennifer Radloff that introduces the context of the collection, and the opportunities and challenges that ICTs bring for activists and women’s organisations. Radloff concisely traces the history of ICT use in Africa, and how it has helped shape individual and collective action, before introducing the contributors and their works.
The format of the journal is structured in four parts. Firstly, there are four feature articles: an examination of the role of e-technologies in Kenya; a case study concerning the 'Joburg Pride' clash in 2012; an exploration of the use of new media technologies among young South African women; and an ethnographic piece on the role that radio plays in the lives of rural Zimbabwean women. Secondly, there are profiles of the Asikana Network, a women-driven group that aims to empower young women and equip them with information and communication technology (ICT), and of the digital visual activism of the website Inkanyiso.
Part three of the journal consists of conversations between feminist activists on a number of themes concerning activist’s use of ICTs, such as the thoughts of Jan Moolman, feminist writer, editor, and activist, on technology-related violence against women. Finally, in a section titled ‘standpoints’ are several essays on a variety of themes, including the synthesis of African feminism and cyber-activism, digital security as feminist practice, and the role of mobile phone technology in development.
If agriculture has historically been the engine of economic growth of the Philippines, it looks like a new engine is driving it these days—services. Services is where the real growth is actually coming as this issue’s banner article discusses. Not only does it contribute significantly to economic output, it also creates millions of jobs. Services is also where substantial amounts of foreign direct investment are being poured in.
Articles inthis brief include:
With the rapid advancement in information and communication technology (ICT) and the equally rapid spread of the Internet, a new system has emerged to revolutionize international trade and business--e-commerce. E-commerce has definitely come of age. Unfortunately, not yet for the Philippines. As this issue's main article shows, the country has been left behind by its Asian neighbors in e-commerce activity, ranking even lower in a number of areas than Thailand and Indonesia, which started using the Internet at around the same time or even much later than the Philippines. This translates to trade losses that our own economy could have captured had we been more swift, focused, and aggressive in improving our technical and human capacities and the access to telecommunications infrastructure of the large majority of the population, as well as in fixing the gaps in our current legal and regulatory framework.
The Philippine IT industry is the outgrowth of the semi- conductor industry that flourished in the 1980s when the country became part of the global production network of multinational companies feeding the global market with IT products, particularly semiconductor.
The long-tem competitiveness of the information technology industry is at risk despite its capacity to account for the large amount of the foreign exchange earned by the country. Several issues have to be addressed such as infrastructural and institutional bottlenecks. In addition, educational system falls short in meeting the human resource requirements of the industry. In the light of accelerating global technology, it is increasingly difficult for countries to upgrade its competitive position. Hence, it is necessary to identify the strategies that can solve these concerns to keep the Philippine position in the IT industry.
Research and development (R&D) activities have long been recognized as one of the critical components to improve a country's productivity and competitiveness as well as people's well-being. Notable advancements in agriculture (to develop new variety of crops), health (to improve nutrition and combat various diseases), industry (to develop new products and services), as well as in climate change adaptation and mitigation are products of R&D.
The Department of Science and Technology (DOST), chiefly through sectoral councils and R&D performers, has been successfully undertaking or supporting a considerable share of R&D activities in the country while noting limited resources available. However, there is a need to improve the thrust for R&D, which may require the conduct of an R&D summit to finalize the scope of the government's R&D medium- and long-term agenda. The DOST also needs to reexamine the distribution of grant-in-aid funds to R&D institutes and identify breakdowns of R&D funding for basic research, applied research, and development. The DOST may need to pilot test scientific methods, such as Analytic Hierarchy Processes, for selection of R&D proposals for funding by its sectoral councils.
The Philippines, with its new economic growth trajectory, requires reliable, accessible, and affordable infrastructure in information and communications technology (ICT). To maximize digital dividends or the development effects of these technologies, policies need to be formulated and implemented.
This Policy Note gives a brief history of the Internet in the Philippines, examines trends in various ICT statistics, discusses issues confronting the ICT sector, and provides policy recommendations to make digital dividends more inclusive. The high cost of ICT services in the country, protecting privacy and data, cybersecurity, and digital literacy are some of the issues identified in this Note. To address these, the government needs to regulate the interconnectivity of networks, build better ICT infrastructures, and expand ICT services to include other sectors for development.
Research and development (R&D) and technology are analysed from the perspective of Philippine economic growth in the paper. It examines the productivity performance of the economy and analyzes how it has been affect ed by developments in R&D and technology. General R&D and technology policies and ins titutional structure and arrangements are examined. National, as well as specific sector al gaps are identified, while weaknesses in institutional arrangements are highlighted. Insights for policy are derived from the analysis.
South Korea and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) initially started a partnership with the signging of a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between the two countries to deepen economic cooperation in six strategic areas. One of the key areas for strengthening bilateral cooperation was the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) sector and the heads of the Korea Development Institute (KDI) and the Abu Dhabi Systems & Information Center (ADSIC) signed an MOU to closely cooperate for three years (2010-2012) within the framework of a Knowledge Sharing Program (KSP).
KDI shared Korea’s best practices in three ICT priority issues for the Abu Dhabi government including
The results for the eight distinguished topics and the three priority issues were disseminated through a seminar and a workshop in Abu Dhabi.
This report reviews Korea’s ICT development experiences in such areas as e-Literacy, GIS (Geographic Information System), and capacity bulding for information security. It also analyzes policy efforts in the domain of Green ICT which has recently emerged as a new growth engine. Together with an overview of government policies in the four areas, the report is designed for utilization by countries that are preparing or implementing policies in the relevant areas by explaining the policies with a focus on key policy means, success factors, and policy suggestions or implications.
Korea and UAE leaderships agreed to establish a future-oriented strategic development partnership for common development and prosperity in 2009. As a part of strategic bilateral collaboration, six MOUs on HRD, Energy, Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Shipbuilding and other important sectors were signed. One of them was the Information and Communication Technology sector for helping Abu Dhabi to identify and develop the enabler and growth engine for sustainable development that will ultimately support Abu Dhabi Economic Vision 2030. In order to achieve such a goal, various intellectual and practical interactions between the two countries were made within the framework of the Knowledge Sharing Program.
While global ICT markets have faced continuous stagnation and slump since the 2000s, Korea’s ICT industry, which has maintained a steady drive for growth, has been targeted for
benchmarking by various countries around the world.
This report discusses the following areas with a view to advising Abu Dhabi's ICT initiatives:
The three key areas discussed for Abu Dhabi are:
The Korean government has implemented various strategic policies for increasing availability and user take-up of e-Government services since the 1980s. In fact, Korea has become one of the top performers in e-Government and is now being benchmarked by many countries across the world. Korea consecutively ranked first in the UN e-Government Survey in 2010 and 2012.
2012 is the third year to conduct KSP with UAE, based on the written demand survey form as well as the discussion with the UAE government, the third year of KSP with UAE, entitled "Policy Recommendations to Abu Dhabi on ICT and E-governance", was launched in April, 2012, focusing on the following two topics: A Study on User Take-up of e-Government Services, Online Citizen Participation.
The use of e-Government applications is a critical element that links the provision of services to the impact of e-Government in its value chain. In other words, the takeup
of e-Government services represents a link by which input of e-Government is transformed into outcome. Readiness, availability and impact of e-Government are interlinked only when e-services are taken up after the services become available under the conditions of readiness. Thus, e-Government investment cannot be expected to have output or impact (effect) if the services are not used even although various services are provided with a high degree of sophistication.
Korean Knowledge Sharing Program (KSP) has been conducted in cooperation with the government of Saudi Arabia on the issues of Economic Development in priority areas in 2010.
The KSP with Saudi Arabia reached its second year in 2011, and based on the submitted written demand survey form, it was identified that the Saudi government had a great interest in the research for the knowledge-based economy.
The purpose of this project is to share with the KSA Korea's experience regarding the knowledge economy. The KSP research team expects that the Korean development experience related with the knowledge economy, particularly the technology development schemes in the early stages of development, will provide useful guidelines for KSA's preparation for promoting a knowledge economy development plan.
2011 was the second year to conduct Strategic Development Partner Country KSP with Uzbekistan. From the grand theme of 2010 SDPC KSP with Uzbekistan, 'Mid and Long term Plan from Promoting Innovation and Sustainable Economic Growth,' more specific topics related to strategies for transforming into innovation based
economy were developed and enriched. 2011 KSP with Uzbekistanis titled 'Strengthening Uzbekistan's National Innovation System,' which has five sub research areas as follows: 1) National Science and Technology (S&T) Policy, 2) Science and Technology Human Resource Development, 3) Technology Transfer and Commercialization, 4) Establishment and Promotion of Regional Innovation System, and 5) Development of Export oriented Small and Medium Enterprises. The major results of the project findings of 2011 KSP with Uzbekistan will be summarized. according to the sub research areas respectively.
Uzbekistan has been trying to develop its economy through science and technology. It has been formulating and implementing national S&T policies in order to strengthen its national innovation system (NIS). In order to be successful, Uzbekistan needs rational S&T policies that are relevant to its national frame conditions. In order to formulate and implement a rational S&T policy, the major components of national S&T policy needs to be analyzed.
As Korea continued to transform into a knowledge-based economy where information and knowledge are the key sources of economic growth, the Korean government had been pushing for informatization in a variety of efforts since the mid-1980s. However, Korea still remained a low achiever of informatization among the OECD countries even in the mid-and-late 1990s while other major countries were stepping up their informatization drives. The use of the Internet and PCs was still limited to certain groups of people, further widening the digital divide. With the economic growth rate falling and the unemployment rate rising, in the wake of the Asian currency crisis in the late 1990s, there was a rising need to boost productivity and demand through the informatization of the public. Under such circumstances, the earlier-than scheduled completion of the second phase of the broadband network construction laid the foundation for increasing the use of broadband network and revitalizing Internet services.
Education broadcasting is a medium that delivers information and contents through sounds and images. Education broadcasting is more extensive, unilateral and mechanical than delivering content through conversation. It is also rapid, visually stimulating, transient and emotionally appealing than printed media. Extensiveness of education broadcasting means it can deliver the same information to a more expansive region and broader target audience simultaneously overcoming the limits of time and distance, and enlarging educational activities. Television education programs that broadcast to a wide area using radio waves provide fast and accurate transmission and provide equal educational opportunities to students across the country. Provision of visual data, using sounds and images allows a detailed instant and real time delivery and is more effective in emotional and behavioral education by enhancing the viewer’s sense of reality.
To meet the demands and to assist the economic and social advancement of the development partnership country more efficiently, the Ministry of Finance and Economy of the Republic of Korea launched a special project under the name of “The Knowledge Sharing Program” with the Republic of Turkey. The KDI School of Public Policy and Managment (KDI School) was assigned as the project implementing agency (PIA) with the overall responsibility of planning, implementing and evaluating all the project activities. The close collaboration, consultation, and exchange with the State Planning Organization(SPO) of the Republic of Turkey has been a critical factor in producing the outcomes, namely recommendations, of the project.
Five projects constitute the Knowledge Sharing Program (KSP) of Korea and Turkey 2005-6, namely:
2010 KSP with Azerbaijan was initiated in December 2009 when the Ministry of Economic Development (MED) and the Baku Business Training Centre (BBTC) of the Government of Azerbaijan submitted a written Demand Survey Form. The form was officially channeled through the KOICA Azerbaijan office, the Embassy of Korea in Azerbaijan and the Ministry of Strategy and Finance (MOSF). There were 3 topics requested in total: (1) Improving the Aid Coordination System to Strengthen the data base for donor coordination and aid effectiveness; (2) Elaborating a policy direction for etraining for entrepreneurship development, and developing a program for elearning in this area; (3) Assessing the impact of the accession of Russia and Kazakhstan to the WTO earlier than anticipated on Azerbaijan.
Based on the priority listing of the topics submitted by the partner country and the relevance of the topic with the objective and framework of the Knowledge Sharing Program, the Korea Expert Consulting Group (KECG) tried to select and provide consultation in the areas where Korea has the necessary know-how and is ready to share its experience. Under such consideration, the following two topics were reviewed with great interest: (1) Improving the Aid Coordination System to Strengthen the data base for donor coordination and and aid effectiveness; (2) Elaborating a policy direction for e-training for entrepreneurship development, and developing a program for e-learning in this area
In the 21st century, knowledge is the key factor in determining a country's level of socio-economic development. From this recognition, the Knowledge Sharing Program (KSP) was launched in 2004 by the Ministry of Strategy and Finance (MOSF) of the Republic of Korea and the Korea Development Institute (KDI). The KSP is designed to contribute to the socio-economic development of the targeted development partnership country by sharing Korea's development experience and knowledge. The most distinguishing characteristic of the KSP is that it is demand-driven and participation-oriented. The program analyzes the problems from the partnership country's perspective and provides policy implications that can be practically implemented in the environment of the partnership country. For Turkey, the Knowledge Sharing Program was initially launched in 2005 between KDI and the State Planning Organization of Turkey on the topic “A Way Forward for the Turkish Economy: Lessons from Korean Experiences.”
Upon the successful implementation of the program, MOSF and KDI have decided to further strengthen the relationship by implementing a second project with the Technology Development Foundation of Turkey (TTGV) on the topic “Models for National Technology and Innovation Capacity Development.” Under the main topic mentioned, experts from both countries worked on four sub-topics which are: 1) Development Strategy and National Innovation System; 2) University-Industry Linkages; 3) Technology, Entrepreneurship and Incubation; 4) Industrial Upgrading with Cluster Approach. This second project is unique in that the experiences of both Korea and Turkey are compared and discussed in sequence, thereby drawing out valuable policy implications and lessons for both countries.
Transparency and integrity are key factors in consolidating democratic governance and deepening the modernization of the state. The Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) has been supporting country efforts to achieve open government, providing technical support and knowledge on transparency in the Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region.
With the support of the Norwegian government, the IDB created the Anticorruption Activities Trust Fund (AAF) -now the Transparency Trust Fund (TTF)-, aimed at strengthening the institutional capacity of the Bank's borrowing member countries in their efforts to prevent and control corruption. After four years in operation, the TTF has gained recognition, both inside and outside the Bank, as a source of innovation and best practices on access to information and targeted transparency.
This publication is based on the idea that transparency is a key public policy tool for promoting greater efficiency in the use and distribution of public resources and improving public service delivery.
The publication is divided in three sections. The first section analyzes the dynamics and challenges of the implementation of targeted transparency policies and open government in the LAC region. The second section presents six experiences -five of them supported by the TTF- that describe the design and implementation of targeted transparency policies in several sectors, such as: (i) subsidies to the private sector in Argentina, (ii) public expenditure monitoring in Brazil, (iii)transparency in home mortgages in Colombia, (iv)extractive industries in Ecuador, (v) financial integrity in Guatemala, and (vi) infrastructure in Chile. The final section concludes by describing the trends and challenges of the transparency and open government agenda in the LAC region.
The majority of Open Government Data (OGD) initiatives around the world have focussed on the executive branches of government, exploring financial, infrastructure and administrative datasets. A smaller number have looked at legislative open data. However, open data in the judicial branch has gone relatively unexplored. In this study, CIPPEC explore the the openness of judiciary branch data and it’s impact through a comparative study across three Latin American countries. The study used a layered mixed-method exploratory design, triangulating findings from a technical assessment of data judiciary websites, interviews with key informants and field-work. The study worked through descriptive, diagnostic, analytical and prospective phases, in order to generate robust policy-relevant recommendations.
The design and implementation of an open data policy is fundamental for the judiciary branches for at least three reasons: (i) Access to information is a human right, recognized by Constitutions, international treatise and laws, as well as by the Inter-American Court of Human Rights and the European Court of Human rights, and open data is useful tool for the publication of information; (ii) access to data allows citizens to monitor the judiciary branch and encourages accountability by the judiciary; and (iii) from the point of view of the performance of the judiciary and policy design, the generation, compilation and availability of data in a format that can be used and re-used enables decisions to be taken to improve the design of public policies for the judiciary based on evidence. However, in Latin America the judicial branch appears to have been the least willing part of government to adopt open data practices.
In order to analyse the first steps of the Open Government Data policy in the City of Buenos Aires, as well as in many other cases, it is necessary to understand the role of policy entrepreneurs (within and outside the public administration) in the implementation of innovative ideas.
Policy entrepreneurs, according to Kingdon, are able to identify and use "windows of opportunity" to promote changes in policy environments. (Kingdon 1984) In this context, as in other areas, opportunities must be early recognized in order to achieve the desired outcomes. These early advocates for change can be found inside the public sector, outside the public sector, or in both areas. The latter is the case of the OGD policy in Buenos Aires. Even more, in the City of Buenos Aires, the Open Government Data policy can be attributed to a combination of three elements:
This paper argues that policy objectives, resources, availability of data and technology play a role determining how open data ecosystems work. For open data policies to become an enabler of a more inclusive and open city different incentives and resources are needed.
The most important conclusion of this case study is that just releasing public information in open standards (in short open government data or OGD) will not unleash social and economic change in the cities.Yet it does have the potential to do the former, if an appropriate set of incentives and institutional framework are available. Focusing on the case of Montevideo city , this case study explores how a nascent environment of open data users and providers is emerging, and which are the key structural elements that allowed this particular environment to flourish. The study seeks to to contribute towards an evidence-based approach to open data. It should help practitioners and decision makers in Montevideo and elsewhere to realise the value of open data and the opportunities and issues ahead.
The concept of Open Government has emerged as a new public policy paradigm. It is a response to the rise of a better-informed and more demanding citizenry, which seeks to influence public service design and provision. The practical dimension of the components of Open Government, above all those related to citizen participation and collaboration, make implementing this paradigm even more complex.
Based on a review of the literature, international evidence, and a specific case of co-design and co-execution of a public service at the local level, this paper analyzes the political challenges that the Open Government model poses. Furthermore, it evaluates the incentives, obstacles, and
opportunities that the Open Government agenda in Latin America and the Caribbean will have to tackle if it is to be feasible and successful.
This study consists of four sections. The first section analyzes the specific challenges related to Open Government strategies. It pays special attention to the two latter pillars of Open Government — citizen participation and collaboration — as crucial axes and critical factors for successfully understanding the magnitude of the challenge that this paradigm shift implies. The second section provides elements that help to explain the political context in which this debate is happening. Specifically, it analyzes certain trends in political institutionality in the world at large and in Latin America and the Caribbean in particular, such as the emergence of two new actors — technology and a new type of citizen — that have to be taken into consideration when it comes to understanding, designing and implementing any Open Government policy. The third section, based on a specific case, delves into the practical implications of implementing participatory and collaborative policies. It contains a critical review of best practices, and the obstacles and opportunities associated with Open Government policies at the local level. The fourth, and final, chapter presents the paper’s conclusion and is set out in two sections. The first reflects on the attitude that civil servants must adopt in order to facilitate Open Government strategies. The second section summarizes the questions that have arisen throughout the course of this stud
The last decade has seen an information revolution not just in Nigeria, but around the world. The internet is connecting individuals, groups, organisations, and states like never before. Activists, advocates and sub-cultures have all embraced the communicative power of the world wide web to connect, organise, educate, entertain, and empower. However, despite the countless benefits, there are significant challenges concerning Internet access and use for many people, particularly women. It can even impact university students, such as the female students at the University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.
This paper examines Internet access and use among female undergraduates at the university, through the use of surveys completed by the students. The findings show that the university computer centre is the predominant Internet access point among the respondents. In terms of how it is used, research ranked first, while financial constraints were the major challenge to access and use the Internet. Respondents found women-related websites useful, but most do not post or contribute material or information on the web. Their interaction with the web instead involves mostly downloading.
The study concludes that Internet access and use among female students, and women in general, would be greatly enhanced if women’s organisations concentrated on addressing the challenges identified in this study; namely the financial cost, and women’s confidence and capacity to interact and produce content. Attention should be paid to students in particular, who have the educational capabilities and potential to impact women empowerment efforts online.
How have information and communication technologies (ICTs) been used to improve access to justice in developing countries? That is the question posed in this brief report, which looks at examples from all over the world, and via different ICTs such as radio, television, mobile phones, and the internet. The report covers numerous topics, including: legal empowerment; capacity-building initiatives; legal information provision; legal aid and community paralegals initiatives; access to justice in remote areas; legal identity; and conflict resolution.
The report notes that legal empowerment through ICT-based awareness-raising and educational initiatives aim to enable citizens to use the law in ways that suit their needs. Many justice systems in developing countries have limited resources and capacity, and ICTs can provide on-demand information on rights and services in ways that do not require a mass of resources, including people power. This is particularly important in areas that do not have public access to such information, such as people in remote areas. Here, it is vital that ICTs such as radio and mobile phones are utilised to their fullest by legal aid and community para-legal services.
ICTs also play a vital role in terms of legal identity; an example of which is the use of portable registration kits to issue photo ID, and SMS-technology for data gathering. Further examples of the use of ICTs in facilitating justice are presented, including the use of SMS-technology and Global Positioning Systems to manage land boundary disputes through non-state dispute mechanisms.
The 2012 Knowledge Sharing Program (KSP) with Ethiopia was conducted by the Korea Development Institute (KDI), supervising agency of the project, which had prepared for the project in 2011.
The focus of the 2012 KSP with Ethiopia was diverted into two directions, as covered by this report:
The ICT Master Plan established "e-Honduras 2038" as the ICT vision, and recommended to implement the plan by defining 7 sectors for the ICT Master Plan, namely ICT HRD, ICT Infrastructure, ICT Legal Framework, ICT Awareness, EGovernment, Business Informatization, ICT Standardization and Liberalization. It also established and proposed a 3-stage implementation plan to achieve the vision, "e-Honduras 2038":
Based on the surveyed demand of the Dominican government, four specific topics under the main title of “Export Credit Capacity Building and Export Industry Promotion with the Dominican Republic” were chosen and are covered in this report:
In light of the latest developments in information and communication technologyy, it is important that the issuance of licenses to companies that may be assigned specific uses or allocations of frequency bands in a spectrum range be made in the most efficient and transparent manner. This policy note examines alternative modes of allocation and assesses their implications and usefulness to the Philippine ICT market situation.
This report studies a series of ICT R&D policies in Korea since the 1960s. Korea’s systemic ICT research and development infrastructure establishment and continued R&D policy implementation have deeply contributed to the country’s present stance as a global ICT powerhouse. The Korean government has successfully established and implemented policies for research institutions, universities and enterprises to build up their capacities to lead innovations on the front lines of ICT sector development.
The country has effectively developed technologies such as TDX, DRAM, CDMA, WiBro and DMB; showed an exemplary case of dividing roles among industry, academia and research institutions in developing new ICT technologies; raised funds for information communication promotion to build one of the top-notch ICT networks in the world and performed stable government ICT R&D projects. Such series of achievements by the country are recognized as a benchmark case, not just for developing countries but also for advanced countries. Developing countries, in particular, as they tend to have weak ICT technological capabilities in the private sector, can study Korea’s case as a benchmark where the basic technology development infrastructure was laid first by many government-sponsored research institutes followed by the nurturing of private sector capacity in a phased manner.
In December 1997, Korea asked for the IMF’s financial aid to address its financial crisis. It was suggested that Korea’s economic growth strategy should be changed from factor driven to a set of total factor productivity improvement policies. ICT’s industry promotion was considered a strategic means to resolve impending issues under the financial crisis, and as leading tools to enhance total factor productivity. The U.S.A, whose economy was restructured for global competitiveness during the late ’80s to the early ’90s via government’s expanded investment on ICT, was considered the benchmark model for Korea.
This report studies a series of ICT human resource development (HRD) policies in Korea since 1997. According to the OECD (2002), ICT HRD is now a main determinant of economic growth and social cohesion in countries and regions. By presenting Korea’s experience in ICT HRD policy making and its implementation process, the authors would like to shed light on the future policy making of developing countries.
They present the following analyses of the ICT HRD policy in Korea: