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Here’s a look at current East Coast Radar. This will update automatically. Here’s East Coast weather observations. Up top a list of the top 5 snowstorms ever at Central Park. Note that the top 5 are spread out over 4 different months. Here’s some webcams to check out, the Eastern Regional Weather Center Hazards Map, a Short Range Discussion on the Storm and the Storm Prediction Center’s meso-discussions on the storm. Finally, forecast discussions from the National Weather Service in Philadelphia, New York and Boston.
This graphic from WeatherBell is the HRRR model snowfall forecast. Here’s a time-lapse forecast of the storm.
Albany NY measured 14.9″ of new snow at 5:55PM, the 3/14/17 winter storm ranks in Albany’s top ten highest March snow storms on record! At 6 pm, the wind in Boston was 46 mph (Logan Arpt.) with a peak gust of 56 mph. 6,000 flights were cancelled today and already another 900 are cancelled for tomorrow. Here’s some New England snow reports. Check out the snow in Clinton NY. From Albany NWS: “We received a report of 11 inches of snow in only 2 hours in Ohio, NY!!!” A wind gust of 138 mph was observed on the top of Mount Washington, NH earlier today. Thundersnow in the Newark/NYC area. Up to 30″ of new snow in PA! Vernon, NJ: 19″ North Grandby, CT: 18″ Hubbardston, MA: 16″ Burrillville, RI: 12″ Wellfleet, MA 79 mph gust at 305PM. That is hurricane force. Reed Timmer video from the snowstorm. 2nd biggest March snowstorm ever at Hartford CT. The clock sure gets buried fast! 24-hr snowfall record at Binghamton NY (28.8″ at 8 pm still snowing). Now 125.2″ this winter #3 all time (131.3 in 93-94 & 131.2 in 95-96). Arctic air Wednesday won’t modify much over snow/ice covered landscape. High of 31°F forecast at Wash DC would set record low max (32° 1932). Beautiful California wildflowers after the winter rains.
Here’s a look at some peak wind gusts. Topping the list is Downtown Gr. Rapids at GVSU (on the roof) and W. Walker with 67 mph. The Ford Airport and Lansing both had 64 mph. Jenison (high school) and Ionia reported 62 mph and East Grand Rapids had 61 mph. The Ford Airport in G.R. had an average 2-minute wind of 51 mph with a peak gust of 64 mph. See these links for peak winds in Southwest Lower Michigan, Southeast Lower Michigan (68 mph at Detroit and Saginaw), Northern Lower Michigan, Northern Indiana, Northern Illinois, Northern Ohio and Southeast Wisconsin. Rochester NY recorded a wind gust to 81 mph – the 2nd fastest wind measured at Rochester since 1941. The fastest wind ever measured in G.R. was 80 mph on 11/11/40.
With diminishing winds, power companies will be able to make progress getting the electricity back on, though it may take until Sunday to get everyone back. Consumers Energy reports that approximately 500 utility poles were snapped or toppled with over 3,000 wires down. You can get the latest outage numbers from the Consumers Energy Outage Map. Ionia County seemed hardest hit. At one point 46% of the county was without power. At one point there were over 1.2 million customers without power in the Great Lakes and northeast.
Several power poles hover near the ground north of Conifer Ridge on Byron Center Avenue SW in Byron Center. Here’s video and pictures of the wind damage in W. Michigan, the latest on the building damage in the town of Clarksville and the roof that came off the school in Barry Co. (200 kids evacuated).
Here’s the plane carrying the U. of M. basketball team that ran off the runway at Willow Run Airport. Winds there were gusting to 63 mph. The U. of M. released this statement.
Severe T-Storms are possible today from SE KS and NE OK to the Mississippi River. Severe weather Weds. was limited to 8 severe wind reports centered around Albany NY. Houghton, Michigan in the U.P. had 8 continuous hours of blizzard conditions yesterday. Cold pattern for the eastern half of the U.S. over the next 8 days.
Also: Wow! Check out this Dust Devil. Snowstorm passes south of Michigan this weekend. Snow will fall from PA to southern New England. What made the Phoenix Suns Gorilla do this? Some good news for weather forecasters, esp. with the time change next Sun. Wildfires destroyed homes in NW Texas and W. Oklahoma. Almost all of Canada colder than average. Sunshine in the Valley of Fire. More rain and snow for the Pacific NW. Texas timelapse. This is called a “standing seiche”. From Dr. Ryan Maue: NOAA’s independent analysis confirms my prelim. results in real-time. Feb CONUS temps highly variable but over past 40 years, no stat up trend”. Blizzard in Serbia. The wettest first 5 months of the water year (Oct-Feb) in California, more than 68-69 as statewide precipitation averaged 27.81. Fairbanks AK had a low temp -39F Wed AM. Only 19 other days past 110 years at least this cold as late or later in the winter.
This image from SDO/HMI shows a black sun…no sunspots…we’ve had 12 days this year with no sunspots. We had 32 days last year that were sunspot free and none in 2015.
Also – high speed solar wind steam did pass earth and helped give some people in northern Michigan a look at the Northern Lights. More cool Aurora pics. here. The bright star to the west in the evening is the planet Venus.
After record and near-record warmth in February, we’re left with just 9.5% ice cover on the Great Lakes.
Lake Erie has no ice at all 0%. Lake Ontario is less than 1/2 of 1% ice cover. Lake Superior is at 5% and Lake Huron has the highest percentage of surface ice cover at 13.6%.
All the Great Lakes have well above average water levels. Lake Michigan-Huron actually went up 2″ in the past week. It’s down 2″ from one year ago, but still 9″ above the century average for March. Lake Superior is unchanged in the last month and unchanged year-to-year. Superior is also 9″ above average water level. Lake Erie is up 3″ in the last week, up 4″ year-to-year and is now 14″ above the March average. Lake Ontario is up 7″ in the last month (above average rainfall/runoff). Ontario is at the same level as last March and is now 11″ above average. Lake St. Clair is up 4″ in the last month, at the same level as one year ago and is still 15″ above the average level.
All the Great Lakes connecting rivers have above average flow and that will continue to be the case through much of the spring. Here’s some river flows in cubic feet per second compared to (average flow): Grand Rapids at Grand Rapids 9,650 (4,430), Muskegon River at Croton 5,750 (2,350), St. Joseph River at Niles 7,370 (4,150), St. Clair River at Port Huron 201,000 (153,000).
Great Lakes News: Cruise ships to dock in Muskegon. Shipping gets early start on ice-free Great Lakes. Lake Michigan anglers will be able to keep more lake trout and fish for the species year-round. Carbon creating safer drinking water. Salute to Grand Haven. Cool lighthouses of the Great Lakes. Low alewife numbers. Zebra mussels muscled out of the Great Lakes? Free lectures at the Lakeshore Museum Center.
These are the severe weather reports received at the Storm Prediction Center for 2/28 and 3/1. As I write this, we’re at 604 reports for Tuesday and 604 reports for Wednesday. Some of these are duplicates and the final number will be lower, but this is still a sizeable two-day outbreak. Red dots on the map are tornadoes, green is a hail report (1″ in diameter or greater) and a blue dot is a wind damage report. There were 27 reported tornadoes on Tuesday – only 3 on Wednesday and two of those were only “possible tornaodes” The biggest hail I saw reported was a little bigger than baseball-size in Illinois on Tuesday. A lot of people saw strong winds with thousands of trees toppled in the two-day event.
The tornado count for 2017 so far is about double the number that we average through March 1 and I think that above average trend will continue through the spring. I’ve said before that I think this will be the biggest tornado count of any year since at least 2011. Check out the tornado information in the two threads below this one.
Pic. above is from Cameron Nixon from the Lincoln NWS facebook page. The Washburn IL tornado late Tuesday has been rated a strong EF3 with winds of 150-160 mph. There are videos of the tornado that you can watch on YouTube.
The twister was on the ground continuously for 18 miles. It traveled at 45 mph. With the tornado moving ENE at that speed, it’s sometimes hard to either keep up with it or get out of the way of it when roads run east-west and north-south. The tornado was on the ground for at least 24 minutes and was up to 600 yards wide (a football field is 100 yards long, so this was a significant tornado). This twister moved mostly over open fields. There were no fatalities or serious injuries. The tornado moved through parts of 3 counties and damaged or destroyed over a dozen buildings, uprooted trees, knocked down power lines and damaged a number of vehicles. Washbujrn is about 25 miles northeast of Peoria.
Not too far away, about 35 miles to the north, an EF1 tornado touched down west of the town of Cherry. As you can see from the map, the tornado dissipated right as it got to the edge of town. This tornado occurred in the dark (8:45 pm), so it would have been hard to see this one coming. Peak winds were estimated at 94 mph. A shed was destroyed and trees were damaged. The tornado was 50 yards wide and traveled 2.34 miles.
The smallest tornado of the day touched down for 1 minute. Probably the only reason we know about this tornado is that Emergency Management was spotting the storm. This twister was a mere 25 yards wide with peak winds estimated at 70 mph. It did little more than stir up the dirt. It passed northwest of the small town of Follett, Iowa, which is just across the Mississippi River from Illinois.
This is the updated (at 11:30 am) Severe Weather Outlook Area from the Storm Prediction Center. The Enhanced Risk Area is now southeast of a line from South Bend to Kalamazoo to Lansing to Port Huron. The Slight Risk comes up to Michigan City IN to Grand Rapids to Saginaw. Best time for storms will be mid-afternoon to early tonight.
Big temperature spread across the area! At 2 pm, it’s 64 at Coldwater, 64 at Marshall, 50 in Battle Creek, 45 in Lansing, 39 in G.R., 33 in Cadillac. It’s 71 with a 55 dewpoint at Lambertville in the SE corner of the state. Big t-storm moving thru Lenawee and Monroe Counties.. The warmer the air, the greater the severe threat. Keep an eye on the satellite loop. Here’s simulated radar.
The first batch of showers and storms is exiting to the east. Rainfall thru 9 am:Hesperia 1.54″, Muskegon 1.13″, Fremont 1.11″, Kent City 0.76″, Sparta 0.72″, Holland 0.57″, Grand Rapids (airport) 0.46″. Lots of rumbling thunder, but no severe weather with the early morning storms.
Meso-discussion for SE MI for a wind and hail threat next 2 hours. There were 3 reports of tree damage in Berrien Co this AM.
SPC says: SPC says: “Severe thunderstorms are forecast to affect areas from Lower Michigan southward to Tennessee, mainly this afternoon through tonight. The primary threat appears to be damaging wind, but some hail and a couple of tornadoes will also be possible…Initial storm development is likely close to the surface cyclone in southern Lower MI…will favor semi-discrete supercells with an associated large hail/damaging wind risk into this evening across southern Lower MI. A couple of tornadoes will also be possible as any sustained supercells can interact with the zone of stronger low-level shear.”
These are the Storm Prediction Center probabilities for a tornado, wind damage and hail. These are the probabilities of a report within 25 miles of a single location. Again, the probabilities are generally SE of G.R.
The greatest threat will be isolated damaging wind gusts. There is also the risk of some hail. Hail has to be 1″ in diameter to be called “severe”. Early and late season convection may not necessarily have a lot of lightning. The strongest winds are often at the front edge of the storm. The low pressure center will track across Southern Lower Michigan from WSW to ENE, taking a path from near Benton Harbor to near Lansing. The greatest threat will be southeast of that line. In the warm air southeast of the low, temps. may reach 60…in the cooler air north of the low it’ll stay in the 40s and severe weather is not likely north of the low. Here’s a surface weather map. The maps, highs and lows on the map at the link are drawn by computer and are often close, but not exactly where the actual low pressure center or front actually is. Look at the individual station plots on the map. Here’s where you can learn about the station plots.
Overnight storms produced 1″ hail that covered the ground at Amboy IL.
This is the area getting heavy snow and some freezing rain across NW Iowa, SE Minnesota and Wisconsin.
BTW, the only tornado Kyle and I could find in the state of Michigan in Feb. was a very brief tornado that touched down Feb. 28, 1974 SE of Yipsilanti. It was 50 yards wide, was on the ground for 1/10th mile and had very brief winds of 90 mph.
Links: Here’s Grand Rapids radar and Northern Michigan radar, Milwaukee radar, Northern Indiana radar, Chicago radar, Detroit radar, Regional radar, the Updated GRR NWS Short Term Discussion. Here’s College of DuPage Radar Map (pick any radar in the U.S.), College of DuPage Grand Rapids radar, the West Michigan Lightning Tracker, National Lightning Tracker, the local warning/advisory map, the National warning/watch/advisory map, and a surface weather map. Here’s the 84-Hour snow forecast from the NAM model and the 120-hour snow forecast from the GFS model. You can checkout the latest Grand Rapids NWS discussion, the Northern Indiana NWS discussion (includes the Michigan Counties that border Indiana), the discussion for Northern Lower Michigan, and Eastern Lower Michigan. Here’s the Spyglass Condos Weather Station the S. Haven GLERL station, the Muskegon GLERL station, the Grand Haven Steelheaders webcam and weather station, and the weather station at Holland State Park. Check out the links to webcams. Here’s the infrared satellite loop (night) and the visible satellite loop (daytime), Lake Michigan water temperatures (summer). Here’s recent storm reports from SW Michigan, Northern Michigan, NE Illinois, SE. Wisconsin, Upper Michigan and E. Michigan. Check out the wind and wave height at the South Mid-Lake Michigan Buoy (Apr. to Nov. only), the North Mid-Lake Michigan Buoy (Apr. to Nov. only), the buoy at Big Sable Point near Ludington and the weather station on the beach at St. Joseph. Here’s Michigan ski conditions. Cool U.S. satellite loop.
This is the 2 am update from the Storm Prediction Center for Friday PM/Evening. The Enhanced (orange), Slight (yellow) and Marginal (dark green) outlooks have been expanded. The Enhanced Outlook is now everyone south of a line from S. Bend to the Kalamazoo area to Lansing to Lake St. Clair. The Slight Risk is up to Holland to Grand Rapids to Lexington and the Marginal Risk is up to Muskegon to Big Rapids to Standish.
SPC says: “Damaging winds, tornadoes, and large hail are possible…Forecast soundings show moist boundary layers with effective SRH in the 150-200 m2/s2 range over much of the warm sector but locally higher (200-300 m2/s2) over the northern portion of the Enhanced Risk in the Michiana/southern Lower Michigan vicinity…threats from the more intense storms include damaging winds, large hail, and the possibility for tornadoes.”
This is SPC’s Thunderstorm Outlook for today (Thurs.) with a (in dark green) Marginal Risk from N. KS and SE NE to the Mississippi River. Much of Lower Michigan is in the General T-Storm Outlook and that’s mainly for Thursday night.
I looked thru the tornado reports at The Tornado Project (list of tornadoes from 1950-2012) and didn’t see any listed for February. It did list two EF2 tornadoes in Berrien Co. on 3/4 in 1961 and 1976. I’ll try and get in touch with the National Weather Service and/or Mike Geukes (local authority on tornadoes in MI).
Climatologically, severe weather is very rare in February in Michigan. It’s very difficult to get tornadoes when the temperature is below 60 degrees. The odds of getting nothing from this event would be highest and the odds of getting straight-line thunderstorm winds would be higher than getting a tornado where you are.
Here’s the latest GRR NWS discussion.
Also: Southern Hemisphere tropical cyclone season is 60% over & activity as measured by ACE is only 18% of normal.
The Storm Prediction Center has outlined a large section of the Southern Great Lakes and Ohio Valley for possible severe weather on Friday. There is an Enhanced Risk Area (orange on the map) that covers much of Northern and Central Indiana and small portions of S. Lower Michigan and NW Ohio. That is surrounded by a Slight Risk Area that comes as far north as Holland to Grand Rapids to Port Huron and also includes much of Ohio, Kentucky, E. Illinois and the rest of Ohio. The darker green is the Marginal Risk Area and the lighter green is the General T-Storm Area. SPC says: “Downward momentum transport via damaging winds are the predominant severe risk. However, some forecast soundings show relatively moist low levels with strong 0-1 km shear in excess of 25-30 knots. A tornado risk may develop with the maturing squall line.
This is the General Thunderstorm Outlook for Thursday/Thursday night. It covers part or all of 11 states, including all of Iowa and most of Wisconsin and Lower Michigan. Most of the day should be dry in Lower Michigan with an increasing chance of rain overnight.
Lots of good information in the threats below, so continuing reading if you have the time.
Here’s a beautiful drone pic. from Jack Martin taken near Holland, Michigan. We’ll see partly to mostly sunny skies today and over the weekend with a big push of unseasonably warm air across the Great Lakes. It’s too early to fill the pool, but I’ll bet some people get the golf clubs out this weekend. In fact, I’ll bet a few people will both ski and play golf in the same weekend!
As of early afternoon Friday, the Great Lakes had 13.3% ice cover. Ice cover on the individual lakes as of Friday was 11.7% on Lake Michigan, only 5% on Lake Superior (deeper lake, less ice cover), 23.9% on Lake Huron (the most of any of the Great Lakes), Lake Erie at 8.9%, Lake Ontario just 2.3%. We’ve had two winters now with relatively low ice extent on the Great Lakes, following two years with very high ice extent.
The water level of Lake Michigan-Huron is unchanged in the last month, down 3 inches in the last year and stands 8″ above the February average. Lake Superior is down 2″ in the last month and down 2″ year-to-year. Superior is 6″ above the February average. Lake Erie is up 4″ in the last month, up 5″ in the last year and is now 17″ above the average water level for February. Lake Ontario is up a whopping 8″ in the last month, but is unchanged in the last year. Ontario is 9″ above the Feb. average. Lake St. Clair is down 2″ in the last week, up 7″ in the last year and is now 18″ above the average level for February.
It’s free fishing weekend in Michigan…you don’t need a license to fish this Sat. and Sun., but you do need to observe all the other rules and limits. A number of mostly free events are going on for free fishing weekend. Here’s the DNR’s latest fishing report.
More: 30 wolves coming to Isle Royale. Do Michigan dams pose a risk? New book on Great Lakes freighters. Historical pics. of the USS Silversides – now in Muskegon – I saw it at the Museum of Science and Industry in Chicago. Michigan’s Sturgeon season lasted about an hour.
Look at the heavy rain that’s expected for S. California. A heavy rain like this will not only cause some flooding, but mudslides/rockslides are possible.
The Sierra Mountains will once again see heavy snowfall. I checked some Western ski area season snowfall totals. Mammoth Mt. is up to 430″ for the winter – that’s 68″ more than they got all last winter. The base at the lodge is 178″. At the top of the mountain at 11,053 ft. elevation, the snow base is 340″ (28.3 feet!). It’s the most snow Mammoth Mt. has seen since 2010-11. Other season snowfall totals: 484″ Kirkwood CA, 482″ Alpine CA, 476″ Squaw Valley CA, 464″ Heavenly CA, 434″ Jackson Hole WY, 340″ Alta UT, 339″ Wolf Creek, 326″ Timberline OR, 311″ Alyeska AK, 300″ Whistler BC Canada.
This pic. of the Oroville Dam was taken 2/11. You can see the water going over the spillway. It washed out the road that you see in the pic. The main spillway (which was damaged is in the foreground. The dam was completed in 1968 and at 770 feet, it’s the tallest dam in the U.S. When full, the reservoir contains 3.5 million acre feet of water. It’s very deep with a relatively small surface area (good for storing water). the 3.5 million acre feet compares volume wise to Lake St. Clair that has 2.77 million acre feet. You can see that if the dam failed, that’s a lot of water heading down the Feather River to Yuba City, Maryville and eventually Sacramento. They have been trying to lower the lake level at the rate of 8 feet per day. They have had 125 construction crews that can drop 1,200 tons of rocks until the spillway area in an hour. Two helicopers are in use. The nearly 200,000 people evacuated have been allowed to return home…that’s about the same number of people that live in G.R. Could you imagine the traffic jams if the entire city of G.R. was told to leave town all at once. The overnight run of the GFS model gives 9.6″ of rain to Oroville CA in the next 6 days!
Sutter County OEM immediate evacuation ordered for Live Oak, Yuba City, Nicolaus & all communities Feather River Yuba City basin. That’s 130,000 people, or 2 1/2 times the population of Battle Creek! DWR plans to use helicopters to drop rocks to fill in the gouge in the Oroville Auxilliary Spillway to stabilize. Here’s the latest tweets from NWS Sacramento. Live video. Live video. Latest from the Sacramento Bee. Traffic jams as thousands flee to higher ground. There was a 3-mile backup on the highway leaving Oroville as residents rushed to higher ground. The Oroville Dam is the tallest dam in the U.S. Watch live: State Emergency Operations Center (when active). Nice aerial view of the dam and spillways.
Here’s dam levels in CA. Shasta Lake – the biggest reservoir in CA is up 1.07 ft. and is just 5.79 ft. from the top of the dam. They are releasing water, but have little additional capacity to store water if we get another substantial rain event and/or melting of the heavy snow that has fallen in the mountains. Oroville is at 101% of capacity and flowing down the spillway. Lots of water is moving downstream toward Marysville and Sacramento. The Don Pedro reservoir is also full and the McClure, Castiac and San Luis reservoirs are up to 90% capacity.
Highway 35 is “gone”. (pic. from CA Highway Patrol).
Also: Beautiful frost on the trees in Rochester NY. Water freezing on glass. Waves hitting the edge of the ice at Grand Haven. Timelapse of sailing at sunset at Key West. Snow adding up in New England. More Lake Michigan waves. Smoke from fires in Australia forms pyrocumulus clouds. Heavy snow in Japan. 84 mph gust in the Carary Is. Video at link. Daily rec. high of 80 at Richmond VA. Winter in the Netherlands. Beautiful rainbow in Brazil. Hottest ever in Australia was 51.6C = 125F on Jan. 3, 1909. Burlington, VT, had a daily record snowfall of 7.6″ on Sunday. Frozen lake in Lithuania. Nice t-storm. Very windy t-storm in Australia.
This satellite pic. was taken today. It shows clear skies over Wisconsin and much of Illnois. Lake-effect clouds cover West Michigan with breaks in the clouds in Southeast Michigan. You can tell from the picture that the wind is west (about 290 degrees). Snow covers the ground over much of Wisconsin and you can see the band of snow that passed across Illinois, Indiana and Ohio yesterday. The snow has gone north and south of Chicago and there is a stripe of bare ground in far Northern Illinois and extreme Southeast Wisconsin. You can see the ice in Green Bay, in the bays of Northwest Lake Superior and the bigger lakes in Minnesota like Upper and Lower Red Lakes. You can also see the darker Illinois and Mississippi River flowing through the snow-covered land.
This was sunset this evening from our GVSU Muskegon Skycam. The high temp. of 20 today in G.R. was 12 deg. cooler than average and tied for 6th coolest day of the winter so far. All of the Great Lakes have well above average water levels. Lake Michigan/Huron is unchanged in the last month, down 4″ year-to-year, but is still at 8″ above the average Feb. level. Lake Superior is down 2″ in the last month (at this time of year it’s below freezing, so precipitation – snow – stays on the ground and doesn’t get into rivers. Superior is also down 4″ in the last year, but is 7″ above the average February level. Lake Erie is up 8″ in the last month (Cleveland has had 191% of average precipitation since 1/1), up 5″ year-to-year and is now 16″ above the average level for February. Lake Ontario is also up 8″ in the last month. Ontario is unchanged in the last year, but is 7″ above the February average. Lake St. Clair is up 4″ in the last month and stands 18″ above the February average level.
Here’s sunset tonight at Grand Haven MI. Check out this beautiful Lake Michigan drone video from Casey Van Santen. More beautiful pics. of Lake Michigan in winter. Winter surfing on Lake Michigan. In 1970, Lake Michigan carried 131 million tons of cargo. Traffic has decreased by 60 percent in less than 50 years. Over the same period, total shipments on the Great Lakes dropped by more than 40 percent. In 2014, the top three cargoes were iron ore (accounting for 50 percent of total traffic), limestone (15 percent), and coal (7 percent). 32 years building a boat. Best walleye fishing ever? Stop Asian carp – win 1 million dollars! Tracking harmful algae. Dinosaurs of the deep. Cannons, guns and cars.
For the 29th year in a row, I was the emcee of the local Math Counts competition at GVSU in downtown G.R. I’ve said that sometimes it seems that the news is crime, chaos, conflict and catastrophe. There are a lot of good things going on that seldom get on the news. Today 100 area middle schoolers.gathered for the +3-hour event. The top 3 schools were Forest Hills Central Middle School, Northern Hills Middle School and Black River Public School. The top individual was Nicholas Ross of Forest Hills Central Middle School. Congratulations to all who participated.
Click on THIS LINK to see how the Snow Wolf clears snow at the Ford Airport in G.R. Look how far the snow carries through the air. This “Snow Wolf” can clear 7,500 TONS of snow in an hour, at 25 mph. Here’s another video. And here’s how a train can clear snow. This train can clear snow 12 feet deep and throw it 100 feet away.
Updated season snowfall totals: Grand Rapids 53.8″ (+3.2″), Kalamazoo 56.0″ (+6.0″), Lansing 26.8″ (-4.2″), Muskegon 38.8″ (-25.2″), Flint 31.6″ (+3.4″), Detroit 29.6″ (+5.5″), Saginaw 28.0″ (+2.9″), Houghton Lake (+20.0), Alpena 44.2 (-5.1″), S. Ste. Marie 85.9″ (+3.5″), Marquette 88.7″ (-29.2″).