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DFID funds research in order to contribute to its overarching goal of poverty reduction. We fund some research which aims to produce new products or technologies that directly improve the lives of poor people. Other research produces knowledge and will only have an impact if it is understood and used to inform decisions. Research uptake includes all the activities that facilitate and contribute to the use of research evidence by policy-makers, practitioners and other development actors. Research uptake activities aim to:
This guidance aims to support DFID-funded research programmes as they develop and implement their research uptake strategy. Research programmes which are part-funded by DFID should consult with their DFID programme manager to determine which part(s) apply to them.
Climate change has been recognized as both one of the biggest threats and the biggest opportunities for global health in the 21st century. This trend review seeks to assess and characterize the amount and type of scientific literature on the link between climate change and human health.
The authors tracked the use of climate-related terms and their co-occurrence with health terms during the 25 years since the first Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report, from 1990 to 2014, in two scientific databases and in the IPCC reports. They investigated the trends in the number of publications about health and climate change through time, by nature of the health impact under study, and by geographic area. Then the authors compared the scientific production in the health field with that of other sectors on which climate change has an impact.
Results: The number of publications was extremely low in both databases from 1990 (325 and 1,004, respectively) until around 2006 (1,332 and 4,319, respectively), which has since then increased exponentially in recent years (6,079 and 17,395, respectively, in 2014). However, the number of climate change papers regarding health is still about half that of other sectors. Certain health impacts, particularly malnutrition and non-communicable diseases (NCDs), remain substantially understudied. Approximately two-thirds of all published studies were carried out in OECD countries (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development), predominantly in Europe and North America.
There is a clear need for further research on the links between climate change and health. This pertains particularly to research in and by those countries in which health will be mostly affected and capacity to adapt is least. Specific undertreated topics such as NCDs, malnutrition, and mental health should gain the priority they deserve. Funding agencies are invited to take note of and establish calls for proposals accordingly. Raising the interest in this research area in young scientists remains a challenge and should lead to innovative courses for large audiences, such as Massive Open Online Courses.
Libraries make an important contribution to development. The purpose of this toolkit is to support advocacy for the inclusion of libraries and access to information as part of national and regional development plans that will contribute to meeting Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (“UN 2030 Agenda”).
Libraries must now show that they can drive progress across the entire UN 2030 Agenda. While the SDGs are universal goals, each country will be responsible for developing and implementing national strategies to achieve them, and will be expected to track and report its own progress toward each target. As these plans are developed, the library community in each country will have a clear opportunity to communicate to their government leaders how libraries serve as cost-effective partners for advancing their development priorities. Advocacy is essential now to secure recognition for the role of libraries as engines of local development, and to ensure that libraries receive the resources needed to continue this work.
This toolkit is primarily for librarians involved in national advocacy. It will also be of interest to librarians advocating at the local level, and organising activities to increase awareness of the UN 2030 Agenda in their own library.
This toolkit will help you to:
The Global Open Knowledge Hub (GOKH) programme, implemented by the Institute of Development Studies (IDS) in collaboration with a range of partners, aims to build a global open knowledge platform for open data sharing and exchange on a broad range of development issues. The aim of the GOKH is to “improve the supply and accessibility of content that supports evidence-informed policy making and practice in international development.” In particular, a key objective of the project is to raise the profile of diverse perspectives on international development, paying particular attention to content from organisations based in the global south.
During its second year, 2014/15, a small amount of funding was made available to the participating partners to take forward initiatives that contribute to the objectives of the GOKH programme. As the only Africa-‐based intermediary partner working in English, Soul Beat Africa proposed a scoping study with the aim of identifying development knowledge portals from Africa that might be suitable to join the GOKH programme.
The main objective of the scoping study was to: explore the availability of development knowledge portals hosted in Africa and about Africa, with the aim to identify suitable content contributors for participation in the GOKH programme. The study used a broad definition of knowledge portals, which are defined as: hubs, repositories, or one-‐stop-‐shops of knowledge around a given topic and intended for a particular community of practice or target audience. They contain a structured set of materials open to interrogation through a search function.
Policymakers and advocates agree that using evidence to inform decisions is essential for good policymaking and program design, given that limited resources require decisionmakers to allocate budgets effectively. Recognizing these issues, funders have invested resources in communicating research findings to inform and empower decisionmakers. But despite these investments, many researchers continue to encounter challenges in sharing their research findings with policymakers.
This brief highlights the experiences of four research teams who communicated findings from studies supported under the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation's Population and Poverty Research Initiative (PopPov). Each research endeavor was unique in its strategic approach, subject matter, policy environment, and outcome. In addition, different PopPov partners funded the grants for each research study. The United Kingdom's Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) funded a study of emergency obstetric care in Burkina Faso; and a study of unintended fertility in Karonga, Malawi. The Population Reference Bureau (PRB) awarded research grants for a study of teenage pregnancy and education outcomes in Cape Town, South Africa; and a study of household family planning decisionmaking in Lusaka, Zambia. ESRC required that research teams develop and implement a communication plan, and report on its results, while PRB made no specific research dissemination requirement.
This is a synthesis report from the Social Protection in Asia (SPA) policy-research and network- building programme, 2007-2010, funded by the Ford Foundation and IDRC. It presents research findings and draws out policy lessons from the 11 research projects, with three key elements: tracking the politics that leads governments to invest in social protection agendas; showing social protection to be not purely a state activity or a civil society activity, but drawing on the strengths of both; and presenting our conscious efforts to study ourselves as researchers within research to policy pathways.
This paper, focusing on 2015, looks back on one of Philippine Institute for Development Studies (PIDS) most challenging projects to date--impact evaluation. The Institute considers its involvement in impact evaluation work as a way to bring policy research in the Philippines one step higher. This issue of the Development Research News, thus, highlights the Policy Forum on Impact Evaluation that brought together senior government officials to promote a culture of evaluation among policymakers--a cause that PIDS believes in. Moreover, this issue also digs deep in exposing core irrigation problems and in scrutinizing the effectiveness of the Community Mortgage Program. PIDS research findings on bottom-up budgeting, postharvest facilities, and logistics industry in the Greater Manila Area, which were presented to the Congress through policy dialogues, complete this quarter's issue.
The Korean government has implemented various strategic policies for increasing availability and user take-up of e-Government services since the 1980s. In fact, Korea has become one of the top performers in e-Government and is now being benchmarked by many countries across the world. Korea consecutively ranked first in the UN e-Government Survey in 2010 and 2012.
2012 is the third year to conduct KSP with UAE, based on the written demand survey form as well as the discussion with the UAE government, the third year of KSP with UAE, entitled "Policy Recommendations to Abu Dhabi on ICT and E-governance", was launched in April, 2012, focusing on the following two topics: A Study on User Take-up of e-Government Services, Online Citizen Participation.
The use of e-Government applications is a critical element that links the provision of services to the impact of e-Government in its value chain. In other words, the takeup
of e-Government services represents a link by which input of e-Government is transformed into outcome. Readiness, availability and impact of e-Government are interlinked only when e-services are taken up after the services become available under the conditions of readiness. Thus, e-Government investment cannot be expected to have output or impact (effect) if the services are not used even although various services are provided with a high degree of sophistication.
Korean Knowledge Sharing Program (KSP) has been conducted in cooperation with the government of Saudi Arabia on the issues of Economic Development in priority areas in 2010.
The KSP with Saudi Arabia reached its second year in 2011, and based on the submitted written demand survey form, it was identified that the Saudi government had a great interest in the research for the knowledge-based economy.
The purpose of this project is to share with the KSA Korea's experience regarding the knowledge economy. The KSP research team expects that the Korean development experience related with the knowledge economy, particularly the technology development schemes in the early stages of development, will provide useful guidelines for KSA's preparation for promoting a knowledge economy development plan.
Oman’s national development strategy envisages the development of a dynamic private sector that will undertake a leading role in the nation’s development. The strategy portrays the existence of a self-reliant private sector as a sine qua non of sustainable growth, while the Government of the Sultanate of Oman (GOSO) reasserts itself as a provider of “strategic guidance” in the development process. In short, the GOSO sees the private sector as the main thrust of the nation’s future growth.
However, there are numerous challenges to the realisation of this vision. One of the most formidable challenges that Oman faces is dealing with rentier tendencies and dependency of the private sector resulting from the long-term dominance of the government in the economic sphere and the lack of private sector initiatives therein. Indeed, the government’s dominance in the economic sphere tends to crowd out private sector initiatives.
It was inevitable that the GOSO assumed the role of the growth engine due to Oman’s commodity-based economic structure. The problem, however, is that this economic structure did not produce sustained growth. Although Oman was successful in broadening private sector participation in its economic activities, as evidenced by the fact that the share of private investment almost doubled to 8.6% in 2000 from 4.4% in 1995, the growth was not sustainable.
Omani economy, which heavily depends on depletable, mineral resources, is facing the challenge of making itself more diversified and sustainable. To achieve this goal, securing fiscal stability, improving the strategic budget resource allocation, and ensuring efficiency of individual public expenditure projects and programs are of central importance (Chatper 1). This report addresses these three issues. Given the large share of the government expenditure in the national economy and the government’s determination to play the key role use in expanding the country’s productive capacity, the enhancement of public expenditure efficiency is a crucial task. Chapter 2 makes assessment of the current Omani budget system and discusses the Korean experiences in this field with a major focus on the performancebased budget system. While having well-developed administrative control system on budget, current Omani budget system has the problem of divided responsibilities for the current budgeting and the investment budgeting, weak development of ex ante and ex post performance management of expenditure programs. This might be the reason why Oman shows higher cost efficiency and overall cost efficiency but lower institutional efficiency in comparison to neighboring countries.
Over the last half century, the Republic of Korea (South Korea) has experienced rapid, sustained economic growth, the social benefits of which have been relatively broad-based. Korea today also boasts a modern and deep financial system, and financial inclusion is high with nearly every Korean having access to basic financial services and products. With this in mind, better understanding of Korea’s financial development is an important key to unlocking the secret behind Korea’s economic miracle. In studying the development of Korea’s financial system (financial deepening), we find that Korea’s experience has been a long and winding road, a journey marked by a difficult struggle to govern the informal credit markets, which had at times dominated Korea’s financial sector early in its development.
In explaining the prominence of the informal credit market, the authors find that the difference in interest rates between the formal and informal sectors, above all, was the biggest determinant of the informal market’s role and size in Korea’s financial system during much of the 1960s and until the early 1980s.
Lastly, the paper discusses the institution of cooperative financial institutions (CFIs) in Korea, an experience usually not seen in other developing countries. CFIs have a long history and share a special place in Korea’s financial development. CFIs were first introduced during Japanese colonial rule. It was not until the 1960s with the establishment and rapid growth of home-grown credit unions and cooperatives that financial inclusion began to improve in Korea.
Today, however, the industry is at a cross roads; Korean CFIs no longer operate like cooperatives. Moreover, a highly fragmented legal regulatory governing has resulted in
an over-crowded CFI market and poor internal governance. The reform and reactivation of Korean CFIs poses a huge policy challenge. But it also offers an opportunity to address
Korea’s growing income inequality, and its polarizing effect on society, by facilitating access to finance for the poorest and for young entrepreneurs.
State-owned Enterprises (SOEs) played a key role in the early stages of industrialization in Korea. Korea still has a large number of SOEs in many industries including energy, infrastructure, and finance sectors, although their proportion in the corporate sector decreased considerably over time as large chaebol groups expanded rapidly since 1980s. Governance of SOEs in Korea is fundamentally different form that of private firms as the government perceives them as policy instruments. In 1983, Park Chung-hee administration established a standardized
governance structure for large SOEs in which the government’s shares were 50% or more by the Framework Act for the Management of Government Invested Institutions. The law gave the line ministries a near absolute control over the management of SOEs subject to them while at the same time allowed then Economic Planning Board to provide checks and balances in a limited way. This structure succeeded in establishing large SOEs separate
from the government sector.
The main lesson developing countries can learn from the Korean experience is that the governance of commercial SOEs needs to be based on strong profit incentives, independent of the policy functions of the line ministries and other government agencies. Developing countries that are in the infant stage of industrialization may be able to borrow some of the features of the governance structure of government invested corporations that Korea had
The main objectives of this research report are to outline the various policies that have been implemented through statutes in the past, and to introduce the legislation regarding rural development and land reform. This report will document each economic turning point and each stage of development since Korea was liberated from Japanese colonial rule in 1945, to the present. This is all included in the “The Necessities and Objectives of Research” to provide substantial rationale for developing countries by linking policies with relevant Laws. In the meantime, whether such legislation and relevant policies have any positive outcome or side effects during this period, will be examined in the introduction to each relevant policy.
Documentation will provide invaluable analysis and data for developing countries. This research report is focused on finding relevant policies and outcomes that have affected Korea, in order for officials in developing countries, who are in charge of their respective country’s policies, to refer to for their own economic and developmental strategies in the future.
This report examines education and training programs that have contributed to the capacity development of Korean government officials. The purpose of this report is to extract lessons and implications that can benefit policymakers in developing countries where capacity building of government officials is an important task for national development.
In order to achieve the goal of this study, the authors examined how education and training programs for government officials in Korea have evolved and how they are related to the developmental policies of the central government. For the past 60 years of its development process, Korea has experienced rapid political, economical, social, and cultural changes, as well as changes in its surrounding environment. In order to cope with those changes, the Korean government, a helmsman of the developmental state, has expanded its functions and roles for pursuing developmental policies.
As part of a knowledge sharing program which intends to share in-depth knowledge about the Korean development experiences with researchers and practitioners in developing countires, this report concerns itself with the story of the Korean career civil service system.
This research consists of five Chapters:
In today’s global economic conditions, the economy of one country is inextricably linked to another in various ways. The wave of liberalization in several sectors including trade, financing, and capital led by major developed countries from the 1970s gained momentum as information technology developed at a breakneck pace from the 1980s up until today. Liberalization expanded to agriculture, finance, medicine, and education, thus resulting in a rapid increasing scale and frequency of capital flows compared to the past capital flows (borrowing from ‘2.2.1 Background of AML System’).
To fight money laundering and tax evasion accompanied by rapid changes in global economic conditions, Korea enacted and enforced the Presidential Financial and Economic Emergency Order on Real Name Financial Transactions and Guarantee of Secrecy of 1993, the Act on Special Cases Concerning the Prevention of Illegal Trafficking in Narcotics, etc. of 1995, and the Act on Special Cases Concerning Forfeiture for Offences by Public Officials of 1995.
This study has two objectives. First, it traces the development of the government bond market in Korea since liberation from Japanese colonial rule in 1945 in order to identify elements underlying the remarkable transformation of the government bond market. Second, it derives implications from the Korean experience and suggests policy lessons for other developing countries: This study not only emphasizes the positive aspects but also clarifies the negative ones of Korean government bond market development to provide useful, specific and realistic policy suggestions to address challenges confronting many developing countries.
The history of the Korean government bond market started with the issuance of the National Foundation Bond (NFB) in 1950 to finance government budget deficits. Since then, various government bonds have been issued and discontinued according to the changing needs for those bonds.
Farmland consolidation is the act of consolidating a series of fragmented and irregular farmland plots to enlarge plot their size and support sufficient irrigation. Farmland consolidation also combines and groups the proprietor’s farmland into one area by administrative give-and-take as well as division-and-junction of their land. Moreover, it also includes the rearrangement of farmland, which is small or lacks sufficient infrastructure due to farmland consolidation or earthwork waterways projects that were done in the past. Such areas can be reconsolidated into a larger scale production by employing farm machinery.
This study is intended not only to investigate the process, achievement, and outcomes of the Farmland Consolidation Project, which has been constantly implemented since the late
1960’s, but also to draw out the implications of these findings.
Like many other countries, Korea has recently reformed its Public Expenditure Management System (PEMS). But the ways the Korean government implement these reforms have some unique features. Korea took a non-evolutionary approach, the so-called big-bang approach, instituting radical changes from practices and processes it had been using for over 50 years, all in a relatively short period of time.
Korea adopted new budgeting and treasury management systems. Korea also changed its accounting from a cash-based system to an accrual-based one. It has also developed a new integrated financial information management system, which it is using to this day. Budget is now formulated via a top-down process, in accordance with five-year forward estimates. Execution is possible at the speed of light, via KFMIS, an electronic system. Treasury management has dramatically improved its efficiency and transparency than before.
Korea launched a major reform to introduce performance-based budgeting into the government sector in the 2000’s. The Korean case is particularly interesting in that the government pushed the reform ahead very rapidly while other reforms in the budgetary system were also pursued concurrently known as the Four Major Fiscal Reforms, which provided an extraordinarily favorable environment for building an effective performance management system.
Due to such a big push forward on a large scale, the Korean government was able to establish a comprehensive and robust performance management system in a short period of time. The Four Major Fiscal Reforms consisted of the establishment of a medium-term expenditure framework known as the National Fiscal Management Plan, introduction of top-down budgeting, establishment of the performance management system, and building of a digital budget information system
This paper provides overview of South Korea’s government procurement (GP) experience in the context of its fast economic development. Public procurement in considered to be one of the major factors that contributed to its economic success, making Korea a suitable benchmark case. In this respect, this paper hopes to provide inspiration and platform to share Korea’s procurement experience with other (not only) developing countries facing similar difficulties that Korea did in their public procurement on the way towards economic advancement.
Literature provides many definitions of GP. In general, GP can be seen as a formal process of purchasing goods and services for government agencies. The principal objective of GP is to acquire goods and services under the most advantageous conditions. This can mean either low price or the best quality, or their combinations. GP also pursues a number of secondary goals such as promotion of selected economic operators or industries, protection of domestic market, social policy enforcement, etc.
The Korean word ‘chaebol’ literally means a group of individuals related by blood, who have accumulated massive wealth. Yet the word is commonly used to refer to a business group consisting of numerous big companies, owned and controlled by a person or family. A chaebol family typically owns a large portion of shares in only one or two core companies, but its control power can reach a large number of companies. One of the means for chaebols to achieve this is to acquire a so-called equity investment in affiliated companies. Given a high ratio of inside shareholding in affiliated companies, the chaebol owner exercises exclusive control rights over them. The number of chaebols grew rapidly in the 1960s and 1970s. Their rapid growth resulted largely from the government’s policy for economic growth. Chaebols were taken as partners by the government in implementing the Five Year Economic Development Plans.
This report presents Korea’s experience and knowledge on the establishment and implementation of occupational safety and health (OSH) laws and regulations, as well as industrial accident prevention activities. Many injuries and illnesses occurred at work in the process of the country’s rapid economic development, and therefore, efforts have been made at the national level to prevent these accidents. The purpose of the research is to help developing countries in establishing national policies and system on OSH and enhancing their level of safety and health techniques, in order to assist them to effectively prevent industrial accidents during the course of economic development. Also, this report is centered on activities carried out by KOSHA to prevent injuries and illnesses at industrial sites. Korea’s high-speed economic growth continued until the 1980s and the incidence of large scale industrial accidents and occupational diseases increased sharply due to larger machineries used in industrial sites, rapidly changing industrial landscape, and the increasing scale of construction works.
Information literacy is the ability to acquire information, to interpret it and to treat it in an intelligent and critical manner. This toolkit isaimed at those who design and/or run information literacy training. The toolkit refers to measuring the competencies (knowledge, skills, attitudes, confidence and behaviours) of information literate individuals. It discusses the reasoning behind measuring indicators in these areas and the difficulties of measuring – and offers tools, intended to complement those that already exist, to help in this measuring.
The number of older persons in Africa is growing rapidly: between 2015 and 2030 the number of people aged 60 years or over in the region is projected to increase by more than 63 per cent. Accordingly, the situation of older persons in Africa, in particular with respect to their well being, is a matter of growing concern among researchers and policymakers alike.
This report provides an extensive directory of research on ageing in Africa covering the period 2004-2015. The Directory aims to profile, promote and encourage research into the health and needs of people aged 50 years or over in Africa, and to enable the use of evidence for policy. Such evidence is essential to enable countries undergoing rapid demographic and epidemiological transitions to develop appropriate policy responses and to monitor the implementation and impact of those policies.
The Directory includes descriptions of research activities submitted by primary investigators, with minimal editing. The submissions were summarized according to how the research results addressed the
policy directions of the Madrid International Plan of Action on Ageing (MIPAA), and the research methods that have been applied. Taken as a whole, the Directory demonstrates the growing body of rigorous and in-depth research into ageing across Africa. While not all research on ageing in Africa has been included here, a review of the updated Directory indicates that research has been less active in some countries, and that some high-priority areas of research remain under-investigated. The process of creating the Directory revealed the difficulty of identifying research on ageing in Africa through searches of high-impact peer reviewed journals or standard bibliographic search engines. Much of the published research evidence on ageing in Africa presented in this Directory was identified through detailed internet searches or through the direct contributions of research collaborators.
Policymakers and advocates agree that using evidence to inform decisions is essential for good policymaking and program design, given that limited resources require decisionmakers to allocate budgets effectively. Recognising these issues, funders have invested resources in communicating research findings to inform and empower decisionmakers. But despite these investments, many researchers continue to encounter challenges in sharing their research findings with policymakers.
To create an environment where research can inform policy, both researchers and decision-makers must collaborate and jointly invest inthe process of bringing evidence to policy—by creating incentives for researchers to consider or discuss policy implications and for policy-makers to seek out research results or to help shape research agendas.
This brief highlights the experiences of four research teams who communicated findings from studies supported under the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation’s Population and Poverty Research Initiative (PopPov). Each research endeavor was unique in its strategic approach, subject matter, policy environment, and outcome. In addition, different PopPov partners funded the grants for each research study. The United Kingdom’s Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) funded a study of emergency obstetric care in Burkina Faso; and a study of unintended fertility in Karonga, Malawi. The Population Reference Bureau (PRB) awarded research grants for a study of teenage pregnancy and education outcomes in Cape Town, South Africa; and a study of household family planning decisionmaking in Lusaka, Zambia. ESRC required that research teams develop and implement a communication plan, and report on its results, while PRB made no specific research dissemination requirement.
Evidence-based policymaking requires that researchers and policymakers collaborate and communicate effectively with each other. How to bridge the cultural and professional divides between these two communities is not always clear, and effective strategies are not often easy to implement. Moreover, preparing research findings for policy audiences has proven to be a time-consuming task that requires particular skills, financial support for sustained outreach efforts, and participation of a wide array of stakeholders. The cases presented in this brief demonstrate that some degree of success in communicating results and having impact is achievable with a high level of commitment on the part of researchers, funders, and stakeholders.
This policy note aims to outline potential future directions for research on natural resource governance in Africa, with specific focus on the extraction of minerals and hydrocarbons.
The document highlights that the correlation between resource abundance and poor social indicators, despite economic growth, remains a development puzzle in Africa. However, it notes that Africa’s recent growth episode is, on average, strongly associated with a growth in resource rents.
The paper suggests that part of the explanation for this puzzle lies in the relationship between resource dependence and weak institutional quality. Moreover, it suggests that finite resources are being depleted and renewable resources are being extracted beyond their maximum sustainable yield.
Nevertheless, the author points that demand for mineral and hydrocarbon resources is likely to remain strong, and profits generated from extractive activities could still contribute significantly to inclusive and sustainable development. Consequently, he concludes that improved governance of finite extractives is a critical research goal, and suggests that future research should consider the following:
Although politics is seen as critical in shaping the quality of service provision in developing countries, this recognition has yet to be integrated within a conceptual frameworks that shape research. The current paper indicates that the World Bank’s “accountability framework”, set out in 2004, has dominated the understanding of service delivery within policy debates in recent years.
However, while this framework recognises the role of politics in accountability processes, it focuses on top-down hierarchical and participatory approaches. Thus, the author suggests a new approach that extends the accountability framework to include three “vertical” levels, emphasising the ways in which political settlements and governance arrangements influence organisational behaviour.
The document clarifies that this multi-level framework takes specific public service provision agencies as the unit of analysis, with a focus on performance. The paper underlines that this enables comparative analysis across multiple sectors and multiple countries in order to better understand variations in performance.
Overall, the main aspects of the new approach are that:
The large existing literature on the determinants of economic growth has traditionally focused on understanding its proximate determinants, with an increasing interest in the role of institutions. A very recent literature now recognises the political determinants of the character of such institutions.
The new approach presented in the current brief contributes to the literature on the political determinants of economic growth. The approach seeks to generate understanding about the political drivers of the frequent shifts in growth rates that developing countries witness over time, and also facilitates the testing of a series of concerned hypotheses.
The document describes the new approach as follows:
Overall, the author highlights that the move from growth acceleration to growth maintenance would depend on the movement in the deals space from closed ordered deals to open ordered deals.
It is hard to make political analysis useful for practitioners. This paper demonstrates that political research tends to inject greater uncertainty into what would seem rather straightforward technical problems, but the answer is not to run away from politics.
The paper clarifies that there are three types of analysis: agenda-setting, problem-solving and influencing analysis. However, the usefulness of each type of analysis can be bolstered by a fractal approach, which follows a common set of questions and statements across various forms of engagement.
All things considered, the author suggests the following approach:
On the other hand, the author encourages aid organisations interested in political analysis to start small and be pragmatic; instead of maximalist models worthy of peer-reviewed journals, the focus should be on “trust”:
The paper concludes that central dynamic of the political economy of development looks very much like a game. Support for civil society organisations is the most frequent strategy for changing the game. Coalition building is another way of changing the game.
This paper indicates that a range of conceptual approaches have recently emerged within international development literature that seek to capture the specific ways in which politics shapes development. The paper critically assesses whether these approaches can underpin research into how developmental forms of state capacity and elite commitment emerge and can be sustained.
The document suggests that these new approaches offer powerful insights into certain elements of the puzzle, particularly through a focus on the relational basis of elite behaviour and institutional performance. However, these approaches are also subject to serious limitations. In this respect, more critical forms of political theory are required in order to investigate how the politics of development is shaped by popular as well as elite forms of agency, transnational as well as national factors, and in dynamic as well as more structural ways.
As a result, the author proposes an initial conceptual framework that can be operationalised and tested within a programme of primary research. The framework includes a wide range of variables and processes that can be tracked in order to test which offers the greatest traction on the outcomes to be explained, but without over-specifying the precise relationships and mechanisms at play. Consequently, the author clarifies that this form of theory-testing and -refinement can be achieved most persuasively through comparative case study research.
Policymakers and academics agree that an effective state is the foundation for inclusive development, whilst also recognising the critical role of non-state actors in the delivery of goods and services to poor people. This compilation demonstrates that recent research has offered important insights into the role of state-society relations and bargaining amongst elites in shaping development, and of the progressive role that informal forms of politics can sometimes play.
However, the author points that most governance research has tended to focus on either elitist or popular forms of politics (rarely both), to ignore the importance of global influences, and to deal with one-off case-studies. Yet, the paper underlines that full understanding the political process of globalisation and the retrenchment of the welfare state cannot be achieved without examining how these policies are experienced differentially on the ground.
The document argues that existing donor programmes fail to recognise the full potential of citizen engagement, resulting in lack of understanding of the complex relationship between citizens and the state that shapes governance outcomes. On the other hand, the inability of post-colonial states to move away from the colonial legacy and “depoliticise” cultural difference hinders processes of nation-building and gives rise to political and ethnic violence, particularly in Africa.
This paper examines the evidence on the forms of politics likely to promote inclusive social provisioning and enable, as opposed to constrain, improvements in service outcomes. The paper focuses particularly on eight relatively successful cases of delivery in a range of country contexts and sectors where independent evaluations demonstrate improved outcomes.
The document traces the main characteristics of the political environment for these cases. The findings indicate that it is possible to identify connections between good performance and better outcomes at the point of delivery and the main forms of politics operating at local, sector and national levels.
Furthermore, the document highlights the relationship between inclusive delivery and:
Equally important, the authors conclude that:
State capacity can be defined as the institutional capability of the state to carry out various policies that deliver benefits and services to households and firms. This paper offers an overview of the strengths and limitations in current empirical research on the measurement of state capacity.
The paper points that recent economic literature seems to increasingly recognise the importance of state capacity as a fundamental ingredient for effective governance. Yet, the document argues that existing measures on governance quality used in cross-national research can be usefully exploited to capture different aspects of state capacity.
On the other hand, the authors highlight the long run determinants of state capacity, including the length of statehood, external conflict, inequality, structure of the economy, incentives and type of recruitment of the bureaucracy and political democracy. Nevertheless, they indicate that some of these determinants evolve endogenously with state capacity so making it hard to disentangle spurious correlation and causal effects.
Still, the paper suggests that political economy explanations, perhaps, are a more promising avenue to understand reforms or the inertia of state structures. All things considered, the document concludes that:
This paper examines the questions of which fiscal (public expenditure and taxation) options work in terms of poverty reduction, and how they can be made implementable in practice. The point of departure of the analysis is that although the poor are politically weak, there are ways in which they can make themselves essential to the elite, and this in combination with relevant policies and institutions has enabled poverty in some countries to fall dramatically.
The document identifies three major territories needing to be researched: effective targeting of public expenditure, the creation of coalitions which include the poor, and ways of exiting from the “low-tax, weak-state” trap. Subsequently, within these territories, the author identifies several pieces of work needing to be explored:
The literature relating to the relationship between governance and inclusive growth does not appear to have reached convergence towards a preferred methodological approach. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of different social science research method approaches in the analysis of governance in developing countries.
The paper provides an overview of the strengths and weaknesses of four types of interpretative research method approaches: econometric and statistical methods, qualitative case-studies, historical institutionalism and randomised controlled trials. Consequently, the document argues that a more sophisticated use of governance as a tool of analysis in development economics will enhance the depth and explanatory power of economic models of development, particularly as it relates to what is understood as inclusive growth.
In this respect, the author suggests that political economy approaches that analyse the effectiveness of good governance in fostering inclusive growth could benefit from adopting a range of methodological approaches. Furthermore, he suggests that one of the approaches that appear to offer the most optimal ‘bridging’ link between variable-based and qualitative approaches are randomised controlled trials (RCTs).
All things considered, the paper concludes that funding on research on good governance and inclusive growth should explicitly encourage the usage of RCTs to derive more substantive and robust insights.
The basic aim of all forms of political economy analysis (PEA) is to improve rates of project success through better diagnostics of reform challenges and operating environments. However, even though all aid donors have some personnel working on the development and implementation of PEA methodologies and frameworks, whether this new cognitive model for aid is compatible with pre-existing administrative factors is still an open question.
The current paper argues that for PEA to become fully institutionalised in donor agencies it needs to overcome the hurdles of administrative viability. That is, it needs to be reconciled with corporate and professional incentives, as well as with the political environment in which an agency operates.
The document tracks this process empirically within two PEA leaders: the UK Department for International Development (DFID) and the World Bank. Consequently, it finds that political economy analysis has not yet become institutionalised in programming, management or the professions, and remains an intellectual agenda very much rooted in the governance silo.
As a result, the authors conclude that the future of PEA lies in organisational change, not any particular framework. The authors indicate that this change is more likely to occur by disseminating PEA outside of the governance profession into agency management and the various sectors of development assistance.
This paper presents an overview of research that is done on the basis of firm-level data, to provide some thoughts on what sort of research questions would be fruitful for the ERF region (Arab countries, Iran and Turkey) to address.
The paper demonstrates that there is substantial heterogeneity in firm-level productivity within individual countries and within individual industries or sectors. Identically, it indicates that firm-level data is used for a variety of purposes and addressing a variety of research questions. Subsequently, the author shows that firm level data has been used to describe the distribution of firm level productivity, and the micro foundations of productivity growth at more aggregate levels.
Equally important, the document suggests research areas where firm level data can be put to good use:
Still, the author underlines that all of these research questions are potentially valuable; therefore, it may be useful to prioritise planned research on the basis of data requirements and access.
This thematic portal examines how women engage with policy change, and the building of alliances and coalitions, to bring about accountability. It also contains information on how to create demand for, and dismantle obstacles to, women’s empowerment; and how to institutionalise and legitimise women’s empowerment in the policies, actions and populations of these institutions.
The following five research projects are featured:
Tunisia is an importer of capital equipment, and given complementarities between capital and labour, employment is expected to rise. The purpose of this paper is to estimate a Tunisian labour demand function, incorporating the variance function; the inclusion of the variance function is aimed at identifying and estimating the effects of factors that cause fluctuations in labour demand.
The paper demonstrates that the model it use is non-linear and is estimated using a multi-step generalised least squares method. The document finds that labour demand is more responsive to wage changes than it is with respect to the remaining variables, i.e. capital and output.
Accordingly, the authors concludes that increases in real wages have a negative impact on labour retention in the manufacturing sector, while investment and economic growth are essential for employment creation. Therefore, they suggest that emphasis should be placed on policies that encourage capital accumulation and overall economic growth.
On the other hand, the paper finds a positive association between increases in wages and improved efficiency (i.e. as wage increases, employers use their resources more professionally). Still, large fluctuation in efficiency over time is an indication of the absence of the expected positive correlation between efficiency and time.
The sudden currencies’ depreciation experienced by the European Monetary System, Latin America or Asia has prompted many studies seeking to model situations of vulnerability and exchange rate depreciation. This paper presents a hybrid model for predicting the occurrence of currency crises by using the artificial intelligence tools.
The paper indicates that the new model combines the learning ability of the artificial neural network (ANN) with the inference mechanism of the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) technique. That is, an EMD-ANN model based on the event analysis approach is proposed.
For illustration, the document shows that in this method, the time series to be analysed is first decomposed into several intrinsic mode components with different time scales. The different intrinsic mode components are then exploited by a neural network model in order to predict a future crisis.
To demonstrate, the authors apply the proposed EMD-ANN learning approach to exchange rate data of Turkish Lira to evaluate the probability of a currency crisis. Consequently, they find evidence that the proposed EMD-ANN model leads to a good prediction of this type of crisis.
In the final analysis, the paper concludes that the model can lead to a somewhat more prescriptive modeling approach based on the determination of causal mechanisms towards finding ways to prevent currency crises.
Policy-makers are experimenting with billions of people’s lives on a daily basis without informed consent, and without rigorous evidence that what they do works, does not harm, and could not be achieved more efficiently through other means. In this context, carefully designed and implemented evaluations have the potential to save lives and improve people’s welfare.
In 2013, Parliament passed only one Act tabled by the Minister of Health, the National Health Amendment Act (12 of 2013). However, this Act was fundamental to the creation of an independent Office of Health Standards Compliance, a key building block for the eventual introduction of National Health Insurance. However, the expected White Paper on National Health Insurance was not published, nor did the National Treasury issue the expected discussion document on the financing options. This chapter focuses on health-related legislative instruments at the national level that have been the subject of change since 2012, including secondary and tertiary legislation, in the form of Regulations published for comment or finalised by the Minister of Health, or Board Notices issued by statutory health councils. In terms of new policy, attention is still firmly focused on the promised White Paper on National Health Insurance (NHI). However, some national policy documents have been released, relating to mental health and to the implementation of the National Drug Master Plan.
However, two major policy developments that were expected to progress in 2013 remain stalled – the issuing of the final White Paper on National Health Insurance, and the creation of the South African Health Products Regulatory Authority. Although the major changes to national health legislation have been put in place, in particular in the form of the National Health Act (61 of 2003), the challenges of implementing such changes in every sphere of government, at every health facility, and across the persistent public-private divide cannot be underestimated. The enabling nature of much of South African health law requires the development and maintenance of detailed secondary legislation in the form of Regulations and statutory council notices.
The author concludes that similar to others who use personal information protected in terms the new Act, healthcare providers will need to carefully consider the demands of new legislation on their practices.
[adapted from author]
The main objective of this paper is to investigate and assess the interactions between knowledge driven growth, acquisition of human capital, and the role of strategic public policy for the Turkish economy. The paper presents a model designed to investigate the public policies towards fostering the development of human.
Based on the model, the document finds that a single-handed strategy of only subsidising education expenditures to promote human capital formation falls short of achieving desirable growth performance in the medium to long run.
All things considered, the authors argue that the public policy should be directed to R&D promotion in the medium-to-long run, to complement an education promotion programme to sustain human capital formation. Yet, they underline that it is essential to continuously improve these policy suggestions with a more realistic and detailed analysis of national economies.
This report tackles the thorny area of monitoring and evaluating policy influence and advocacy projects. It reviews key debates in the area, including the tension between establishing contribution and attribution and different ways of understanding causes.
To evaluate policy influence we first need to understand the processes by which policy changes. To this end, the paper presents a number of options and frameworks for understanding how policy influence happens. It then sets out and describes options for monitoring and evaluating policy influence and advocacy projects at four levels:
Finally the paper presents six case studies of how real organisations have monitored or evaluated their policy influence or advocacy projects. This paper will be useful to anyone implementing, evaluating, funding or designing policy influence and advocacy projects.
Summary adapted from authors.
A set of policy reforms have been introduced in the Indian pharmaceutical sector since mid-1990s, aimed at incentivizing the private sector research and development (R&D). Patent reforms was the most significant policy reform. An implicit assumption that the Indian pharmaceutical firms have become capable of developing new drugs underlined these reforms and it was expected that both the Indian firms and multinational companies (MNCs) would invest in R&D on new drugs not only for diseases that are prevalent globally but also for diseases that are specific to India and other tropical countries. This discussion paper provides an analysis of the impact of these reforms on pharmaceutical R&D in India. It looks into the context in which the reforms were introduced, the nature and trends of R&D efforts and emerging R&D strategies.
[Adapted from author]