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The Socialist Republic of Viet Nam is one of the six pilot countries of the European Union-funded Migration, Environment and Climate Change: Evidence for Policy (MECLEP) project.
Drawing from an extensive number of sources, including academic papers and reports produced by the Government and national and international organizations, this assessment aims to: (i) provide an overview of the linkages between migration patterns and environmental change in VietNam; (ii) critically analyse national policies that address these links; and (iii) propose some related research and policy implications.
Viet Nam is particularly exposed to floods and typhoons as well as droughts and sea-level rise, which have major impacts on the country’s environment and the livelihoods of its 90.73 million people. Adverse environmental conditions clearly influence migration patterns in the country: since the 1990s, the relocation programmes implemented by the Government for communities affected by environmental degradation and the number of people internally displaced by natural hazards in recent years (more than 2 million between 2008 and 2015) are clear signs of the migration–environment nexus.
The report concludes that more detailed research should be conducted in order to fully understand the migration–environment nexus and exhaustively address the needs of relocated and displaced people in the country. The establishment of a ministry of migration could play an important role in ensuring that people migrate in the best conditions
Growing numbers of internally displaced people (IDPs) live in informal settlements in major Afghan urban centres. Compared with other Afghans they are more likely to be non-literate, to have lower rates of school enrolment, to live in larger households (but with lower household incomes), to be unemployed and to be highly food insecure.
There is insufficient understanding of and response to the needs of youth, and particularly vulnerable females, displaced to urban areas. This report presents findings of research in three informal settlements in Jalalabad, Kabul and Kandahar which was commissioned by the Norwegian Refugee Council and researched by The Liaison Office (TLO), an Afghan non-governmental organisation.
The study confirmed earlier findings about the impacts for IDPs of living in poor urban settlements, characterised by inadequate and crowded accommodation, insufficient water and sanitation facilities, extreme food insecurity and inability to get education or employment.
The findings of the research break new ground, confounding the common assumption that urban women and girls should be more able – in a supposedly more secure and progressive urban environment with a concentration of service providers – to access services and employment and social opportunities than prior to their displacement.
This research found the opposite, showing that displacement places women and children at disproportionate risk, living with fewer freedoms and opportunities than those they enjoyed in their natal villages or when living in Pakistan or Iran. Evidence gathered shows that displaced females face significant enhanced gendered constraints to accessing education, health and employment opportunities. They have lost freedoms, social capital and networks they may have previously enjoyed. The controlling tendencies of their male kin, and their propensity to violence, are enhanced by their own desperation.
The World Risk Report (UNU, 2015) ranks the Republic of Mauritius seventh among the 15 most exposed countries to natural hazards, namely sea-level rise, cyclones and floods; and thirteenth among 171 countries for its disaster risk. However, being aware of climate change challenges, the Government of Mauritius has initiated studies more than a decade ago and subsequently took action to develop adaptation and mitigation strategies.
This study analyses the prospects that migration could offer to mitigate the effects of climate change both in the short run and over the long term for the Republic of Mauritius. In fact, the migration profile of the country is multifaceted. It has been found that there is an increasing demand for international labour to work in the low-skilled sectors, while there is currently a high number of Mauritians, particularly those who study abroad, who seek to migrate because of better job prospects and opportunities. Within Mauritius, there is a high mobility of people migrating across districts and to and from Rodrigues. There is now evidence that some people from Rodrigues are coming to settle to Mauritius Island because of environment and climate-related issues. In addition, as the population is becoming older, Mauritius will, in a decade or so, become a human capital-stressed economy. These migration dynamics must be put in perspective to encompass climate change threats besides addressing socioeconomic, political and demographic challenges.
Some of the policy recommendations that emerge from the study:
On one hand, environmental and climatic factors account for migration to Morocco from sub-Saharan and movements out of and within the country, especially to the major coastal cities; and on the other hand, they also put further pressure on natural resources in the most part of rural areas. With the severe impacts of climate change expected to rise in intensity in the coming decades, sudden-onset events, such as floods and storms, as well as slow-onset processes, such as droughts and desertification, will further intensify these movements and challenge local and national policymakers.
This report: (a) carefully lists both the slow-onset and the sudden-onset climate impacts and (where possible) points to migratory movements and trends connected to or induced by these impacts; (b) discusses the state of different policy areas with respect to environmental migration, their interconnectedness and their potential for further development; and (c) assesses the state of research and identifies major knowledge gaps that should be filled through future research.
The report concludes the following:
NRC´s research shows that this is compounded by the repressive social norms women experience from their communities and families. Those who face discrimination because of their ethnicity, place of origin and gender, are more likely to become homeless and, oncehomeless, are exposed to more serious protection risks.
This report provides a general overview of the international law issues relating to sea-level rise, (forced) migration and human rights. The first part provides a brief accounting of 'What We Know and What We Can Expect', discussing sea-level rise and its impacts, and then, in turn, their relationship and interaction with the criteria of statehood, human rights and mobility. The second part features 'tools' with the potential to address the mobility and human rights implications associated with sea-level rise and its impacts. Part two initially explores interventions that would enable affected persons to remain in situ, before embarking on an examination of extant 'tools' pertinent to internal and cross-border movements, respectively. The final part presents the way forward, drawing out key areas and principles of international law with the capacity to lend clarity and content to States' obligations to address the challenges presented by sea-level rise.
With global temperatures breaking new records and an average of at least 21.5 million people already being displaced each year by the impact and threat of climate-related hazards, it is time to ratchet up efforts to mitigate, adapt to and prepare for ever greater displacement risk.
This briefing paper summarises where the issues of displacement, migration and planned relocation stand in the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) agreements, decisions and discourse, and highlights opportunities and challenges inherent in turning knowledge and commitments into concrete action for people already displaced and those at greatest risk of becoming so.
Global temperatures have now risen approximately 1°C above pre-industrial levels. This has already led to significant climatic changes in many places on the planet, thus, challenging food and nutrition security by reducing the productivity of agriculture and negatively affecting small-scale food producers. Climate change is also an increasingly decisive factor behind today’s growing number of people who migrate or who are forced into displacement from disaster and are in search of temporary shelter or options that are more permanent. In 2015, weather-related disasters displaced around 14.7 million people, almost twice the number of people (8.6 million) that fled conflict and violence. The links between climate change and displacement are complex, but they are receiving increasing attention. Research points to climate change as an interrelated driver and threat multiplier that interacts with, and reinforces, other factors that push people away from their homes, such as environmental degradation, poverty, and conflict. Thus, tackling poverty and tackling climate change go hand in hand: an intertwined relationship recently highlighted in the Sustainable Development Goals and the Paris Agreement.
This report presents existing findings in order to review the linkages between climate change and displacement. The report shows that the level of climate change mitigation and adaptation undertaken will significantly affect future levels of climate change displacement. Unless governments take strong preventive action and invest in adaptation, climate change-related phenomena such as floods, droughts, famines and hurricanes could push the total number of permanently displaced people as high as 250 million people, between now and 2050.
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) raised the prospect of significant displacement and migration as major human impacts of global warming as early as 1990. Research on the issue has grown exponentially since, and its importance is increasingly recognised in international discourse, policy and action emanating from the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
With global temperatures breaking new records and an average of at least 21.5 million people already being displaced each year by the impact and threat of climate-related hazards, it is time to ratchet up efforts to mitigate, adapt to and prepare for ever greater displacement risk.
This briefing paper summarises for parties, observers, civil society and private sector actors heading for the climate change conference in Marrakech (November 2016) where the issues of displacement, migration and planned relocation stand in the UNFCCC agreements, decisions and discourse, and highlights opportunities and challenges inherent in turning knowledge and commitments into concrete action for people already displaced and those at greatest risk of becoming so.
Some credible recommendations on how to manage climate-induced migration and displacement have emerged in recent years, yet overall, the international policy response is incomplete. In particular, there is no comprehensive international framework or set of national policy instruments for addressing climate-induced migration (whether ‘forced’ or ‘voluntary’) where extensive risk is increasing. This is problematic, as it is likely to be an important driver of migration in the future. An emphasis on the potential benefits of migration as an adaptation strategy is also lacking. This briefing explores climate-induced migration and displacement, as seen to be falling between the policy gaps.
This paper was published by the Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC) with the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) to inform the round table talks on ‘the importance of housing, land and property (HLP) rights in humanitarian response’ held in Geneva.
The NRC and IFRC are the global focal point agencies within the HLP Area of Responsibility under the Global Protection Cluster, a collaboration between NGOs, UN agencies, and academic institutions. The statement of the Global Protection Cluster provides the basis for this paper to develop a deeper understanding of how a human rights framework, specifically the right to adequate housing, can inform responses to disasters and conflict and promote protection within humanitarian operations. This paper aims to present that HLP rights is a cross-sectoral issue, and although this manifestation is acknowledged by some, it still represents a barrier to operations.
Assistance for this report was provided by the UK Department for International Development (DFID) and the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs (NMFA).
By providing a first-hand account of development projects and business activities that have caused displacement across India, this report documents and analyses the scale, process and impacts of this phenomenon. It contributes to the existing body of evidence on this type of displacement and aims to raise awareness among policy-makers, business elites, academics, NGOs and operational decision-makers at the national and international level.
The report examines nine cases of displacement caused by development in the states of Gujarat, Jharkhand, Kerala and the national capital territory of Delhi. They reveal failed regulation, inadequate enforcement and harm to communities that extend to other cases elsewhere in India. They show that land acquisitions have pushed people aside with no regard for their rights or needs for decades. They are the result of government indifference and a failure to monitor the human rights impacts of projects and establish accountability mechanisms to address them.
The case studies for this report contribute to the global evidence base on displacement caused by development. The detrimental impacts of development projects in India highlight the need to address the issue in key policy agendas and discussions. Despite IDPs’ awareness of their rights and resistance to their eviction and displacement, they will not escape poverty without significant external support and systemic changes to social and economic policies.
Global development agendas should ensure that while development projects may alleviate poverty for some, they should not at the same time create new poor or heighten the existing economic vulnerabilities of those evicted. Neglecting those evicted and displaced would undermine the achievement of global development goals. The timescale for planning and implementing projects provides ample opportunity to avoid or minimise displacement, and to put measures in place to ensure that those who are displaced achieve durable solutions.
There are 193 countries in the world. And 21 million refugees. More than half of these refugees - nearly 12 million people - are living in just 10 of these 193 countries. This is inherently unsustainable. Countries hosting such high numbers of refugees cannot provide for them. Many refugees are living in grinding poverty without access to basic services and without hope for the future. Not surprisingly, many are desperate to move elsewhere. And some are willing to risk dangerous journeys to try and find a better life.
Efforts to address the global refugee crisis have failed to address even a small fraction of the actual needs. Moreover, they are often based on measures to ensure that the wealthiest countries face the least disruption. Many of the world’s wealthiest countries have devoted significant resources to ensuring that refugee populations remain in less wealthy countries - shirking rather than sharing responsibility.
Amnesty International believes that it is possible, if states will share the responsibility, to ensure that these people who have had to flee their homes and countries, through no fault of their own, can rebuild their lives in safety elsewhere.
Amnesty International is campaigning for much greater responsibility-sharing amongst states and for greater protection of the rights of refugees around the world. The concept of responsibility-sharing is rooted in international human rights and refugee law. States have obligations to assist each other to host refugees, and obligations to seek, and provide, international cooperation and assistance to ensure that refugees can enjoy international protection
Migration is one of the strategies used by populations to adapt to natural shocks and also to respond to economic policies. Climate change will probably have an impact on the productivity of factors and on the health of the population of the Latin America and Caribbean region, triggering migrations. In addition, policies aimed at reducing emissions (like carbon taxes) will change relative prices and the remuneration of factors and, in turn, will alter the allocation of labor between urban and rural areas.
This paper explores the potential quantitative relevance of those population movements using a CGE version of the Harris-Todaro model. Two paradigmatic cases are considered: i) domestic or internal migrations, focusing on the case of Sao Paulo (Brazil) and ii) international migrations, analysing the displacement of population from Bolivia and Paraguay to Argentina.
Around the world, nearly 50 million children have migrated across borders or been forcibly displaced. This report presents comprehensive, global data about these children - where they are born, where they move and some of the dangers they face along the way. The report sheds light on the truly global nature of childhood migration and displacement, highlighting challenges faced by child migrants and refugees in every region.
Companion for volime of annexes to accompany Agenda for the protection of cross-border displaced persons in the context of disasters and climate change, volume 1.
- integrating human mobility within disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation strategies,and other relevant development processes
- facilitating migration with dignity as a potentially positive way to cope with the effects of natural hazards and climate change
- improving the use of planned relocation as preventative or responsive measure to disaster risk and displacement
- ensuring that the needs of IDPs displaced in disaster situations are specifically addressed by relevant laws and policies on disaster risk management or internal displacement
Old-age pension programs targeting the elderly may eventually benefit their extended families. However, no consensus has been reached on the growing body of literature that examines the potential impact of old-age pension on migration decisions of extended families.
This paper makes use of the most recent social pension reform in rural China to examine whether receipt of the pension payment equips adult children of pensioners to migrate. Employing a regression discontinuity (hereafter RD) design to a primary longitudinal survey, this paper overcomes challenges in the literature that households eligible for pension payment might be systematically different from ineligible households and that it is difficult to separate the effect of pension from that of age or cohort heterogeneity.
Around the pension eligibility age cut-off, results reveal large and significant increase among adult sons (but not daughters) to migrate out of their home county. Meanwhile, adult children are more likely to migrate out if their parents are healthy. Fuzzy RD estimations survive a standard set of key placebo tests and robustness checks.
The case of South Sudan shows that peace on paper does not necessarily mean peace on the ground. Many displaced persons are sceptical of the peace process and the commitment of their leaders, in particular as nothing has changed since the beginning of the conflict.
Nevertheless, over ten thousand people have already returned, and aid agencies expect many thousands more who return because they feel alienated in South Sudan’s neighbouring countries or try to find livelihood opportunities to support their families outside the camps. But their return needs to be sustainable to prevent new conflict as a first wave of two million returnees between 2007 and 2013 had already failed.
So how can return be made sustainable and new conflict be prevented?
The author recommends:
As part of a multi-stage assessment of the protection needs of women and girls in the flow of refugees through Europe, the Women’s Refugee Commission recently visited Serbia and Slovenia. They found that there is virtually no consideration of gender-based violence (GBV) along the route to ensure safe environments, identify survivors and ensure that services are provided to them. Refugee women and girls are often unable to access basic services in transit centers, including sexual and reproductive health care. The lack of clear information and inability to access interpreters, especially female interpreters, hinders women and girls from accessing services and leaves them vulnerable to smugglers and other opportunists. Government officials are inadequately equipped to manage this mobile, vulnerable population. Civil society organizations with relevant gender expertise are typically excluded from the places where they could be most helpful.
Finally, the protection risks that women and girls face in all humanitarian crises are exacerbated here by the lack of meaningful legal options to seek asylum or other relief along the route. There is an urgent need for the Serbian and Slovenian governments, in collaboration and coordination with other countries, the European Union (EU) and the UN refugee agency (UNHCR), to take control of a hastily developed and chaotic humanitarian response and put in place the policies, programs, services and personnel that will protect women and girls from a myriad of risks from the moment they arrive and through the journey to a safe resettlement.
This short (19 page) report provides an overivew of the issues as well as a set of useful recommendations for Serbian and Slovenian governement to address these issue.
This publication is meant to serve as a ready reference on the country-specific legal protections that exist for women migrantworkers in source and destination countries in the programmeme countries of un Women’s Asia & Arab states Regional programmeme on Empowering Women Migrant Workers in Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Jordan, Lao PDR, nepal, Philippines. In addition, destination countries and territories such as Bahrain, Hong Kong SAR, uAE, singapore and Thailand were included.
It endeavors to compile existing legal provisions for departing and returning migrants in countries of origin and measures for access to justice for women migrant workers in destination countries. Evidence and/or information on the implementation status of the existing laws were included as far as current data and information would allow.
It also sought to provide examples of and recommendations for gender sensitive and rights based legal measures that could be adopted to empower women migrant workers to effectively enjoy their rights.
This publication was intended as an aid to the enhancement of policy, programmemes and development actions aimed at increasing the protection of women migrant workers; advocating with regional bodies e.g. South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and Association of South East Asian nations (ASEAn) and Governments for appropriate protective measures for women migrant workers; assisting non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and Governments in reporting to the un Committee on the Convention for the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW); helping inform migrant civil society, including NGOs/migrant workers associations; and, developing guidelines for recruitment agencies and employers regarding minimum employment standards.
The accountability framework for integrating UNHCR’s age, gender and diversity approach (AGD) responds to internal and external requests for greater accountability and leadership from senior managers to ensure adequate mainstreaming of age, gender and diversity concerns throughout the organisation. The High Commissioner himself has placed both gender equality and accountability high on UNHCR’s agenda. UNHCR’s ‘Age, Gender and Diversity Approach Forward Plan 2011-2016’ aims to ensure that UNHCR is a fully age, gender and diversity inclusive organisation within five years.
The Age, Gender and Diversity Accountability Framework aims to demonstrate organisational leadership by placing accountability with senior management, in a transparent, public and personal manner.
As such, it is a ground - breaking initiative, which, seven years on, continues to place UNHCR as a lead agency in ensuring that age, gender and diversity ‘mainstreaming’ moves from rhetoric to organizational reality.
The Framework consists of four elements, all designed to support the achievement of equal outcomes for all persons of concern, regardless of age, sex, identity or background. These four elements are visualised below and form the basis of the organisation’s high level AGD accountability framework.
The accountability framework provides a checklist of minimum standards for meeting each of the four elements.
This discussion document presents a first draft of the sixth annual overview of progress towards achievement of the accountability actions for AGD and associated targeted actions for the enhanced protection of persons with specific needs.
This report captures the Norwegian Refugee Council’s (NRC) groundbreaking work in Afghanistan, including NRC’s role in bringing greater understanding and visibility to Afghan women’s housing, land and property (WHLP) issues in a displacement context. Over three million Afghan women have been internally displaced or sought refuge in neighbouring countries. Regaining or accessing housing, land and property is one of the most important steps towards achieving a durable solution.
Women’s housing, land and property rights are recognised in Afghanistan’s constitution and its civil code, as well as in Shari’a. However in reality women continue to face discriminatory cultural norms and customary practices. This report aims to highlight such customs and cultural practices and demonstrate the challenges women face to fully realise their rights enshrined in law. It also provides recommendations to the Government of Afghanistan, donors, humanitarian actors and civil society organisations on how to tackle these challenges and increase meaningful engagement on women’s HLP issues.
NRC Afghanistan is proud to be a leading organisation working on and bringing attention to women’s HLP issues. This report is based on experiences directly from the field. It captures the bravery of our clients, who are increasingly seeking recognition of their rights and challenging deep-rooted customs which constitute roadblocks to Afghan women achieving their rights.
In many places affected by conflict and crisis, displaced women continue to live in extreme vulnerability. They often suffer unbelievable human rights abuses and remain marginalised, unable to make decisions about their lives and their communities. This is especially the case with respect to the realisation of their housing, land and property (HLP) rights.
Norwegian Refugee Council’s (NRC) staff witness first-hand how conflict is most acutely felt by women and exacerbated by discrimination. Through our legal assistance operations we have witnessed the magnitude of the difficulties confronting displaced women seeking to access justice in order to claim their housing, land and property.
We fail in our humanitarian, development and peace-building efforts if we do not adequately support women and build on their own resourcefulness. In 2000, the UN Security Council passed the landmark Resolution 1325, generating numerous global initiatives and subsequent resolutions promoting the rights of women in conflict and post-conflict situations. Yet almost 15 years later, humanitarians still have a long way to go to put women at the centre of policy and operations. This is even more acute for displaced women’s rights.
This report is NRC’s contribution to generating policy and practice solutions based on our operational experience. We aim to shed light on the major hurdles that displaced women face when seeking to secure a home and rebuild their lives both during and after crisis. We have listened to their experiences in many countries and sought to reflect their voices, their concerns and their own vision for solutions. The report speaks of the difficulties, courage and triumphs of the displaced women with whom NRC works, and offers practical recommendations for humanitarians to support women as they recover from tremendous hardship.
But beyond this, the report reinforces NRC’s belief that even in the midst of conflict and crisis, humanitarians can seize opportunities to bring about lasting transformation and greater equality through our conflict and post-conflict interventions. We can do this by challenging discriminatory laws and practices that undermine not only women and girls’ rights, but also the effectiveness of humanitarian aid. Assisting displaced women to claim their HLP rights, particularly through legal assistance, is a crucial part of the solution.
The Thai seafood industry employs more than 800,000 people, while seafood exports are valued at $6 billion. Slavery, ‘pirate’ fishing and other serious crimes continue to plague Thailand’s seafood sector highlighting the shortcomings in private sector initiatives and government controls.
A growing number of independent reports over the past decade have documented abuses of workers trafficked on to Thai fishing vessels, including bonded, forced and slave labour and the use of extreme violence.
Thailand's fish stocks and marine biodiversity are in crisis. The Thai fishing industry has undergone decades of overfishing and astonishingly poor fisheries management. Rapid industrialisation during the 20th Century has resulted in too many vessels using destructive and unsustainable fishing methods to catch too many fish
The lack of an adequate fisheries management regime and effective enforcement along with extensive corruption have facilitated overfishing in Thailand, which has generated economic pressures that fuel the ongoing, widespread use of slave labour.
This report builds on over three years of in-depth research and field investigations to first expose abuse and then critically assess claims that slavery and 'pirate' fishing in Thailand’s export-oriented seafood sector have been significantly reduced. By returning to Kantang, this report presents evidence that is broadly representative of trends across the country – namely the Government’s ongoing failure to address corruption and prosecute and convict those engaging in and benefiting from criminal activity. It offers recommendations to the The Royal Thai Government, producers, retailers and all business interests, and to consumers.
As Europe struggles to manage its largest migrant crisis in more than half a century, attention has focused largely upon the refugee flows from Syria, Iraq, and Afghanistan, where years of war and instability are driving the exodus. But in 2015, an estimated 154,000 migrants entered Europe via the Central Mediterranean Route – an increase of nearly 400% over the previous year, and more than 1,000% over 2012 – most of them from the Horn of Africa. By far the largest contingent of migrants – nearly 39,000 in 2015 – is from the sub-region’s
second smallest country: Eritrea. In contrast with the mass, largely uncontrolled movements of refugees from the Middle East, irregular migration from the Horn of Africa is dominated by highly integrated networks of transnational organised criminal groups. Coordinated by kingpins based chiefly in Libya and the Horn of Africa, these networks “recruit” their clients via schools, the Internet and word of mouth; they corrupt government officials to ensure seamless travel across borders; they collude with Libyan militias to secure safe passage across the desert to launching points on the southern shores of the Mediterranean; and they cast their human cargoes adrift at the limit of Libyan territorial waters in order to avoid interdiction and arrest by European security forces.
The purpose of this report is to map out as much as possible the networks involved in human smuggling and trafficking and to identify what policies could be brought to bear in dealing with them.
The report deals with general trends and patterns of migration from the Horn of Africa. It synthesises evidence unearthed by various law enforcement operations, to identify some of the criminal ringleaders involved in human smuggling and trafficking from the Horn of Africa through the Central Mediterranean. It also examines the responses of various national authorities and international organisations with respect to human smuggling and trafficking.
Since 2013, SOLIDARITES INTERNATIONAL (SI) provides humanitarian aid to Syrian refugees in North Lebanon governorate in the sectors of WASH, shelter, livelihood and outreach. As the needs of Syrian refugees increase while humanitarian funding decreases with the end of the war in Syria seeming far from a resolution, it has become evident that more attention should be placed on sustainable solutions. In 2014, SI consequently started to implement community mobilization activities and established the Collective Site Management and Coordination (CSMC) program in 50 sites in 2015. This program aimed at re-empowering the Syrian refugee community by creating camp management committees and raising awareness on their rights and legal status. It also provided the community with lists of service providers and proper referrals and complaints mechanisms in order to ensure their needs would be referred to the appropriate stakeholders and assistance would be provided with the desired quality according to specific standards. Ultimately, the program aimed to increase Syrian refugees’ autonomy and to mitigate the risks of tensions with host communities and local authorities.
This document presents the program and the research that was undertaken to identify and explain the successes and failures of CSMC. It also provides learning for programmatic improvement.
In many parts of the world, migration has replaced fertility and mortality as the leading agent of demographic change. A person’s gender, age, religion, race, ethnicity, sexuality and health or disability shape every stage of the migration experience. This briefing focuses on gender and age, offering an insight into who migrates and who doesn’t, reasons for migrating, experiences of the migration process and what life is like for different groups of migrants and refugees when, and if, they reach their destinations. It concludes with a set of recommendations for more gender and age sensitive policy making.
This report is based on 24 days of desk-based research and provides a short synthesis of the literature on fragility and migration in relation to Ethiopia.
It is difficult to obtain an accurate picture of the migration situation in Ethiopia today. Limitations with the migration data include the use of varying definitions for different categories of migrants, and the lack of documentation of irregular migration.
This rapid review has found a fairly large development practitioner and academic literature on the sources of fragility in Ethiopia. While migration statistics are unreliable, there is reasonably credible information about the routes and migrant profiles. This literature is more focused on those travelling to the Middle East, with a strong focus on young women in a number of reports. As much of the migration is irregular, this presents challenges for documentation.
Key evidence gaps include :
Eritreans have fled the country in large numbers since the 1960s as a result of war, poverty and a lack of freedom. The 30-year long Independence war produced a diaspora of over a million people, mostly based in Sudan, the Middle East, Europe and the US. Significant numbers displaced during this war returned after Independence in 1993 and throughout the remainder of the 1990s.
The border conflict between Eritrea and Ethiopia from 1998 to 2000 resulted in a further mass displacement of Eritreans to Sudan, and the expulsion from Ethiopia to Eritrea of approximately 75,000 Eritreans and Ethiopians of Eritrean descent. The cessation of these hostilities resulted in significant numbers of these newly displaced returning almost immediately to Eritrea’s western low lands. The growing suppression of rights within Eritrea since 2001 has resulted in a year-on-year increase in the numbers of refugees in Sudan and in Ethiopia. A significant proportion of these individuals leaving Eritrea consider Europe their ultimate destination.
Migration trends from Eritrea are unlikely to change in the near and medium term. Migration from the country is driven primarily by indefinite national service; the suppression of political, economic and social rights; and the absence of private economic o pportunities. Opposition parties are not permitted to operate within Eritrea, resulting in significant restrictions on freedom of speech. Discrimination amounting to persecution on the grounds of religion, ethnicity and political opinion constitute accepte d reasons for Eritreans to claim asylum. There is no evidence of civil conflict within Eritrea, and the country is not noted as being vulnerable to the outbreak of violence or conflict.
Figures on Eritrean migrants remain limited in quantity and quality, not least because of the difficulties involved in registering the ongoing flow of Eritreans leaving the country. Official reports often rely on unverifiable information collected from the Eritrean diaspora, migrants and refugees, and regional experts. Moreover, statistical data on the country and its economy is often outdated and unreliable. It should be noted that there has not been a national census in Eritrea since 1994, and current estimates of the population size range from 5.1 million in 2014 (World Bank, 2015) to 6.5 million in 2015 (CIA, 2015). Very little research is conducted within the country, and data from international organisations within Eritrea is often collected by national staff through government- controlled channels. An attempt is made in this report to document the range of quantitative data on Eritrea when significant discrepancies have arisen.
This literarure report provides a literature review from Desk based research. Sudan is a source, transit, and destination country for migrants. Sudanese migrants are a mixed group of refugees and asylum seekers, economic migrants and, to a lesser extent, foreign students . The majority are men aged 25 – 40, and they come from a wide range of socioeconomic and educational backgrounds.
The majority of refugees and asylum seekers are in neighbouring countries, while somewhere in the region of 500,000 economic migrants are working in the Gulf States. There are also smaller numbers of Sudanese migrants in Western countries, with 16,901 residence permit holders in the EU28 by the end of 2014. Given the important role of remittances for individuals in Sudan, and for the Sudanese economy, the state is generally supportive of migration. There has been state collusion in people smuggling and trafficking of migrants, with members of the Sudanese military, border patrols, police and refugee camp guards reportedly involved. There is general consensus that Sudan suffers from brain drain, at least in some sectors. Most notable among these is the health sector. The majority of migrants to Sudan tend to be migrant s transiting through Sudan on their way to Libya and Egypt, and possibly on to Europe. They generally travel through Sudan with people smugglers.
There is very little evidence on the links between inward and outward migration and development. However, internal migrants have generally performed more poorly than the remainder of the Sudanese population on the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) indicators. Moreover, rural – urban migration has resulted in a significant increase in urban poverty in Sudan.
Gaps in the literature include information on income by occupation, and its trajectory, the wealth profile of migrants, ethnic/tribal/regional breakdowns of migrants, details of legal alternatives to the migrant journey from Sudan, the development dimensions of migration, and information on the benefits that Sudan might obtain or forgo from reduced out - migration.
Migration within, into and out of Africa is an important demographic dynamic closely tied to broader social, economic and political processes. In 2014, close to three million people – displaced by conflict and persecution – were refugees on the African continent.
This Policy & Practice Brief (PPB) evaluates how well-equipped the African Union’s (AU) migration policy framework is to address various domestic challenges that individual African states face in managing international migration. It reviews these issues, then analyses the key policy instruments underlying the AU’s continental migration framework. The focus of this PPB is the African Common Position on Migration and Development and the Migration Policy Framework. Although other AU legal and policy instruments have migration implications, these two documents are the entity’s most comprehensive articulation of its normative and policy vision for regional migration. While migration and immigration are far-reaching concerns intersecting with issues such as trade, security and communications, this brief focuses on the social integration of migrants and their hosts; and recommends reforms to address key weaknesses in the overall framework.
The large number of refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs) in the Great Lakes region poses immense challenges to peacebuilding processes within the countries affected, as well as in that entire conflict system. An influx of refugees impacts peace and security, citizenship considerations, as well as cross-border and ethnic confl icts, among others. A case in point, conflict is often triggered by competition for land and economic resources, and is exacerbated by the growing number of refugees in Africa’s Great Lakes region. The presence of refugees contributes to signifi cant security issue for several countries in the region. There have been reports of some refugees joining armed groups or terrorist organisations, occupying large territories to exploit mineral resources, attacking local communities to expropriate land, and acting as cheap labour, to the detriment of locals. These factors advance the perception among original inhabitants that crime, impunity and weapons traffi cking, among other scourges, increase with the settlement of foreigners in their communities and countries. On the other side of the debate are considerations that refugees bring important skills and knowledge into host countries, participate in entrepreneurship and development projects that contribute to local economies, and boost local markets due to increased demand for products and services.
There are questions that are central to understanding the dilemma that is the ongoing refugee crisis in the Great Lakes region. How can the challenge of huge refugee numbers in the region be addressed? How best can long-term, sustainable and holistic political and humanitarian solutions be implemented to deal with the negative impacts of the refugee crisis? Why has the fl ood of refugees been such a long-term recurrent issue in the Great Lakes region, compared to other parts of the continent? This Policy & Practice Brief (PPB) analyses why refugees have been hesitant to return to their domiciles, even when there have been indications that relative peace had returned to their countries of origin. It also examines the impacts of refugee fl ows on peace and security, as well as on land and socio-economic control and access. It concludes by proffering recommendations on what can be done, from a regional perspective, to decrease the number of refugees, while simultaneously resolving the root causes of the various confl icts that the refugees have fl ed in the fi rst place.
This working paper examines the global situation of social security provisions for domestic workers in 163 countries, analysing trends, policies and gaps in terms of legal and effective social security coverage for domestic workers.
Key findings reveal that of the 67 million domestic workers worldwide, 60 million are excluded from coverage of social security. The largest gaps in social security coverage for the domestic work sector are concentrated in developing countries, where few nations provide legal coverage for this sector. However, social security coverage deficits for domestic workers also exist in industrialised countries.
Further findings note that women comprise the majority of domestic workers, accounting for 80 per cent of all workers in the sector globally. Migrant domestic workers, estimated at approximately 11.5 million persons worldwide, face even greater discrimination than that experienced by domestic workers in general.
This report examines the gendered impacts of on-going global financial and economic crises in the labour market. It focuses on issues of women’s employment and decent work, particularly taking into account the implications for those employed in the informal work sector such as the self- employed, those employed by micro-enterprises, unpaid workers in family businesses and those who provide unpaid care work.
The paper provides a broad macroeconomic background to understanding the wider context in which gendered outcomes on employment unfold. Additionally, it analyses regional cases showing how crisis response strategies are crucial to determining the extent to which employment is preserved through and after a financial crisis. The findings stress the importance of taking an integrated gender approach for a sustained and equitable recovery. These examinations lead to policy recommendations relevant to different contexts.
Adapted from author's summary
In the City of Zamboanga, the increase in growth rate during the first half of the decade (1990-1995) can be attributed to the net migration rate. This plus the rapid urbanization, has brought about positive and negative results, particularly on service delivery, resource mobilization and social concerns.
Because rapid urbanization and the ‘halaw’ problem in Zamboanga City has become a national and local concern, this study was initiated as part of the State of the Philippine Population Report of the Commission on Population. It will help local government officials to understand the critical role migration plays in shaping the socio-economic conditions especially of urban areas.
Specifically, it sought to answer the following objectives:
'Halaws’ and other migrants to the city come from low socio-economic status and this situation puts more strain to the city’s resources, especially along health, education and peace and order. The growing number of urban slums is a manifestation of the deteriorating economy and productivity of the city. Since movements cannot be curtailed, the monitoring of migrants was not given attention by the previous administration, except for the sole attempt of tracking migrants through Ordinance No. 106, which required barangay officials and community residents to report the presence of transients and newcomers. In fact, most local officials see the movements of people to Zamboanga City and the forced migrants –halaws and evacuees from conflict-torn areas – more as a national rather than local concern.
There is a need to transform the negative effects of urbanization and migration through the conscious application of the population and development paradigm in the entire planning process at the various levels of governance. The consideration of the population characteristics will be an important determinant of the various social service requirements as well as the environmental needs. This will help ease the strain of the effects of rapid urbanization to the provision of basic services. It is important therefore to have adequate and updated data/information for proper planning and resource mobilization.
Several studies on the impact of international migration and remittances on household outcomes have been released recently. Many were found to have conflicting results. This paper attempts to shed light on the conflicting results by reviewing the empirical studies that use large-scale and nationally representative data sets from the Philippines. The focus on these types of studies was deliberate so that sample size problems are minimized and particular attention can be given to the methodologies used in appreciating the results. The main purpose of the review is to highlight the differences in the methodologies employed and their implications on the results.
The impact of migration and remittances on poverty incidence appears to be consistently negative even with infirmities in the specification of several studies. The impact on the depth of poverty is not as clear with preponderance of no significance in the results. If the negative impact of migration on poverty is firmly established then perhaps the focus of future research will be on determining the mechanisms that brings forth this result.
The main research issues in establishing the impact of migration and remittances on household welfare can be grouped into two:
The inflow of international remittances to the Philippines has been recently increasing at phenomenal rates. Official data indicates that from 2001 to 2006, remittances have been growing at an average rate of over 16 percent annually. This suggests that within the said period it doubled and reached a crucial amount of US$12.7 billion or 11 percent of the country’s GDP. This indicates that remittances can play a huge role in the economic development of the country.
This paper examines the general relationship between remittances and household expenditures in the Philippines by doing a cross-sectional analysis of the 2003 Family Income and Expenditure Survey (FIES). Unlike past research works, it provides a comprehensive overview of the effect of remittance on spending behavior by looking not only at common categories like food, education, and housing but also vices like tobacco and alcohol. It addresses some methodological issues in examining remittance effects. These are the presence of zero expenditures, heterogeneity of the nationally representative sample, and inaccuracy of the FIES data on remittance. Zero expenditures were taken into account by using the censored Tobit model while heterogeneity was addressed by employing the Quantile Regression technique. Also, the FIES data on remittances was corrected by excluding the investment and pension components from the original remittance data used by past studies to arrive at more accurate estimate of remittances sent by family members working abroad and its effects.
The study found that while there are evidences that households receiving remittances tend to consume more conspicuously on consumer items, they also invest more on education, housing, medical care, and durable goods. There is no clear relationship though between remittances and tobacco and alcohol.
Literature has focused on motives to explain remittance behaviour. But as nonanonymous transfers, remittances are apt to be influenced by giving norms as well. In this paper, the authors formulate an empirical specification that takes account of remittance motives involving worker-household pairs. They find that altruism dominates the exchange motive among overseas workers who are likely to be the primary breadwinners of their recipient households.
The paper also finds that in the subsample in which overseas workers are likely to be secondary breadwinners, (a) household labor income is an endogenous explanatory variable, and (b) the error covariance of the household income and remittance selection equations is positive. A possible reason for (a) is that secondary breadwinners use household income as an imperfect signal of opportunity cost or to detect unobserved effort, i.e., moral hazard, in generating income. As for (b), the authors surmise that it indicates the presence of incentive-compatible mechanisms against moral hazard. On giving norms, it is found that, in samples that include overseas workers who are secondary breadwinners, remittance amounts are afflicted with negative selectivity. We present evidence that this is consistent with Filipino giving practices in which everyone gives but in modest amounts.
This paper discusses public and private institutions that were established in the Philippines to provide services to Filipino international migrant workers. Thirty years of having explicit policy on international labor migration has resulted to the creation of various public agencies to promote, manage, and protect migrant workers.
The paper looks at their evolution and at the letter and application of their mandates as well as how some have become models for many developing countries to follow. It presents how government migration services work together with nongovernment organizations in a complementary manner in order to be able to provide support to Filipinos working and living overseas. It also shows how these institutions cover all aspects of migration including but not limited to predeployment, deployment, onsite support services, and eventual return.
The purpose of the paper is to summarise studies identifying the causes and effects of Philippine international labor migration and remittances and to highlight research gaps. Literature and reliability of findings that explore the many facets and implications of the social and economic impacts of international labor migration and remittances were assessed and reviewed. Impacts on education, health, family cohesion, fertility, and demographic distributions, as well as on consumption and investment, and poverty and inequality, were highlighted.
The paper argues that understanding the social and economic impact of international labor migration and remittances is complex and an interdisciplinary research is needed to appropriately define the scope of its impact. To move our understanding of the issues forward, in-depth analyses using better specifications, estimation procedures, and data are necessary.
International labour migration has become an enduring feature of Philippines' development. From negligible flows occasioned by it s colonial relationship with the US at the beginning of the century, recent flows have phenome nally increased in volume and have diversified in its destination. The question often asked is what is in store for the country given the prevailing trends in the flow of migrant workers.
The paper characterises how international labor migration became an enduring feature in the country’s development. It presents data on the flow of temporary and permanent international migrant workers in the last thirty years. Characteristics such as destination, occupation, education, sex, and age are presented. Using historical movements and motivations, the study then presented the likely prospects of the Philippine international labor migration market considering domestic and the global labor market developments. Long-term and short-term prospects were discussed and economic, demographic, political, and environmental factors were considered as factors affecting the future flow of international migrant workers
The migration of Filipino women to take up domestic work overseas is an extension of patterns observed in internal migration in the Philippines. Long before large scale overseas employment took root in the Philippines, domestic work was already one of the occupational options for Filipino women.
This report presents the findings of a study which sought to examine the impact of Philippine government regulations on the status of Filipino domestic workers. The Migrants Workers and Overseas Filipinos Act of 1995 or RA 8042 and its amendments (RA 9422 in 2006 and RA 10022 in 2010) were aimed at enhancing the protection of migrant women, especially those in domestic work. Part I of the report discusses the regulatory framework set in place by the Philippine government for the purpose of protecting Filipino migrants engaged in domestic work. Part II of the report is dedicated to assessing the outcomes of government regulations on the experiences of Filipino domestic workers. The review of literature, development of instruments, data collection, processing of data, and report writing took place between July and December 2010. The report concludes with lessons learned and policy recommendations, which are outlined in Part III.
The study highlighted significant gaps in migrant workers` knowledge and understanding of government regulations. Based on the survey of domestic workers prior to migration, many departing migrant workers were not aware of basic work rights and government regulations, particularly those concerning the HSW reform package. The survey findings also indicate the violation of many government regulations. It is clear from the survey that if respondents had a choice, they would have wanted to work at another job.
The key recommendations based on findings and insights from the study are programs on migration must be improved to promote awareness and understanding of basic policies, rights, and decent work conditions. Migrant workers` education program must be reinforced with post-arrival orientation programs in the destination countries must be improved. Reintegration services to distressed migrant domestic workers need to be expanded. An important step forward is a review of the HSW reform package in dialogue and consultation with the different stakeholders. Particularly for the government, it must pursue a clear and coherent policy concerning the deployment of domestic workers.
The long experience of deploying large numbers of workers has earned accolade for the Philippines as a global model for managing the deployment of workers. In an attempt to improve protection of household service workers (HSWs), the Governing Board of the Philippine Overseas Employment Administration (POEA) promulgated a series of issuances in 2006 stipulating specific conditions before deployment is allowed. This policy brief provides a summary of the reform package, its indicative impacts and implications for policy.
As in many regions of the world, there is an urgent need in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) to address critical gaps in the management of migration, especially the protection and promotion of migrant workers` rights. Intra-ASEAN migration has been phenomenal, yet it has taken place without a regional regulatory or institutional framework. Consequently, the growth of migration has been accompanied by challenges, including irregular migration, recruitment abuses, and exploitation of migrants who are often without access to legal protection.
This policy brief provides the reasons on why ASEAN states need stronger cooperation in protecting migrant workers` rights and suggests the role of ASEAN.