FeedBurner makes it easy to receive content updates in My Yahoo!, Newsgator, Bloglines, and other news readers.
A message from this feed's publisher:This is one of the news feeds from Eldis. You can also choose to receive the content of this feed as an email message. Or we can supply you with HTML code to add the feed to your own website. Visit http://www.eldis.org/go/newsfeeds for more information, or contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org
The authors highlight that, although education has been shown to be a good predictor of productivity, the results demonstrate that the most productive nurses were not those with the highest levels of education. However, those who did not attend any form of in-service training for a prolonged period of time were far less productive than those who had attended training. The authors also conclude that midwives were the most productive category of nurses, in terms of amount of tasks and frequency with which they were performed. They argue that this highlights the importance of midwifery training in the efficient delivery of the Botswana Primary Health Care system.
Other topics include the different sanitation needs of men and women; access for disabled children and adults; sanitation for children’s health; sanitation in cities and towns; and sanitation for emergencies. Instructions are also provided on how to build a simple hand-washing device and several types of toilet; make soap; and treat dehydration. The author argues that the diseases caused by germs from poor hygiene and sanitation will not be prevented if people are blamed for their own poor health, or if only technical solutions are promoted. To improve health in a lasting way, health promoters must listen carefully and work together with people in the community.
Since the publication of the 1999 edition, there has been heightened awareness and recognition of HIV among IDUs in most Asian countries. However, fear and prejudice remain barriers to combating the epidemic affecting this group. This updated manual forms both an information resource and an advocacy tool for advancing the reduction of drug-related harm in the region.
Additional problems caused by the high costs of treatment are highlighted. These include the tendency for poorer patients to buy incomplete treatment or share one course between family members, leading to treatment failure and further medical problems; and an increased incidence of delays in care-seeking, leading to higher rates of mortality. In conclusion, the authors call for combination therapy to be provided either at an equivalent cost to that of current malaria treatment, or free of charge. They argue that the solution to the malaria crisis is already available through combination therapy and should not be delayed – all it requires is the political will to make it happen.
A key message from the issue is the need for increased investment in international family planning and reproductive health. It highlights a major funding shortfall in this area, caused primarily by the diversion of resources to address the HIV/AIDS pandemic, and considers the threat this poses to meeting the Cairo target of reproductive health for all by 2015. The final article cites the Amsterdam Call for Action agreed at the 2003 conference ‘Reproductive health: key to poverty reduction’, where participants pledged renewed commitment to the realisation of the ICPD programme of action.
Strategies for increasing demand for ITNs while protecting the poorest are proposed. These include: subsidies to target vulnerable groups; use of vouchers; distribution of free nets through public sector health facilities; and payment of ITNS by the rich for the poor. The article also suggests lowering of prices from the supply side by removing taxes and tariffs on nets. In conclusion, the authors emphasise that meeting the targets agreed at the Abuja summit will only be possible if national malaria control programmes, and their global partners, ensure that the poorest have access to health interventions.
While acknowledging obstacles such as the sometimes high cost and level of expertise required, the article argues that GIS technology is appropriate for developing countries. It highlights the use of participatory approaches for the transfer of GIS technology by the MARA project and suggests that this could be used as a framework for future projects. In conclusion, it insists that factors such as the global trend towards more powerful computers, user-friendly software and falling prices will make the technology viable for health research and management in Africa. [Adapted from author]
The article recommends integrating all case reporting systems into one standardised system, with a single form to include essential variables for the calculation of key indicators by age, gender and pregnancy status; and establishing a national database to support the application of geographical information systems (GIS) for mapping malaria by location. It concludes that these findings should be seen as a basis for a comprehensive analysis across Mozambique, where malaria is the main cause of mortality; and should benefit not only Mozambican malaria managers and public health specialists but also the rest of the world affected by malaria. [Adapted from author]
Major achievements of the PMAC programme included developing systems for the provision of family planning counselling services and referral of women with other reproductive health needs; and effecting change in providers’ attitudes and values, which led to improved counselling skills, better and more compassionate care for post-abortion clients, and increased use of manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) in the clinical treatment of complications. Key to these successes was a flexible, culturally sensitive approach which helped retain the support of policymakers. The programme has since been expanded to other facilities in the Philippines.
Strategies for delivering successful interventions are identified. The paper emphasises the key role of health education and primary health care in changing behaviour, however noting that there is little tradition of mass education on which to build. Key recommendations include collaboration between experts, the government, the media and religious leaders to create large-scale public health campaigns; and addressing the skills gap by inviting nurses and health educators from other countries to teach in Iraq’s universities and medical schools.
An outline of the assessment process is provided, followed by coverage of planning and implementation. Key stages include identifying appropriate sites; involving the local community and analysing their needs; selecting which parts of VCT to integrate to ensure community acceptance; identifying and training providers; adapting existing facilities; and setting up ongoing care and support services for those testing positive. Guidance on monitoring and evaluation is included; it is recommended that this is a continuous process and that providers learn from the experiences of others involved in HIV prevention and care.
Summary written in collaboration with BRIDGE and Siyanda
Key successes of ASUH include a significant increase in first visits after birth and of vital Hepatitis B vaccinations of newborn babies, as well as overall improvements in health services and behaviours. The programme has left a legacy of strong relationships and flexible participatory approaches, enabling communities to work with health systems at village, district and government level to meet their own needs.
The paper discusses the various dimensions of globalization, presents the growth record of globalization and analyses government spending in the era of globalization. Two suggestions for increasing public spending are discussed in the paper: governments should spend at least a certain percentage of their revenue on health; and government spending on health should be more equitable.
The paper finds that:
What are the implications of these findings for increased spending on health? The paper argues that getting governments in poorer nations to spend more on health would be difficult for the following reasons:
The paper suggests that some mechanism of international transfer of resources for enhancing health expenditure must be in place. It recommends that there should be a large transfer of resources from developed to developing countries for health spending.
[adapted from author]
It presents a Rapid Referral Assessment (RRA) methodology which uses a cross-sectional study design that includes:
The goal of the RRA is to describe:
The analysis is largely quantitative, although there is some qualitative analysis pertaining to constraints to referral.
Overall findings include:
[adapted from author]
This strategy paper, produced by WHO, aims to set out how life-long antiretroviral treatment can be provided to 3 million people living with HIV/AIDS in poor countries by the end of 2005. It describes the goal, target and guiding principles of the initiative, and examines the five pillars of the strategic framework guiding WHO’s action. Finally, it shows how WHO is changing its structures and work patterns to push towards 3 by 5 and how WHO will work with partners to expand access to antiretroviral therapy through 2005 and beyond. [adapted from author]
This article, produced by the Universidad de Alicante and CORE, examines the specific implications that such dual activity has for public health authorities. The main objective is to analyse the circumstances under which the health authorities benefit from the doctors’ dual practice and those under which they lose. It develops a principal-agent model to analyse how the behaviour of physicians in the public sector is affected by their activities in the private sector. The article finds that physicians will have incentives to over-provide medical services when they use their public activity as a way of increasing their prestige as a private practitioner. [adapted from author]
Previous research on moonlighting acknowledges that multiple motives may exist, but focuses only on the constraint motive. This research, produced by the W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, examines the characteristics of moonlighters and the length of their moonlighting episodes with the goal of understanding who moonlights and why. The analysis of data reveals that most moonlighters, in spite of working long hours, tend to be poorer than the average worker. [adapted from author]
Using primarily existing data, this report, produced by the Harvard School of Public Health, describes the composition and activity of the private sector in Zambia, and the various factors and government policies affecting providers. The report provides an overview of private health provision and how public policies affect the development of the private sector in Zambia. It concludes by providing policy options for increasing the contribution of private providers to national health goals. [adapted from author]
This report, produced by the Harvard School of Public Health, documents the contributions of the private sector to some of Kenya’s health goals. The report provides an overview of private health provision and how this links with the public health agenda in Kenya. It finds that the potential exists for much higher levels of contribution from the non-governmental sector, which requires collaboration between the public and private sectors in identifying national public health priorities and in putting in place a framework for achieving those goals. [adapted from author]
The article has two main goals. The first is to characterise dual-jobs and dual-job holders, with a focus on dynamics. The aim is to understand why and when workers move into and out of second jobs. The second goal of the article is to examine models of dual-job holding. The article presents a dynamic model consistent with the findings of the research conducted by the authors, that seeks to explain why and when workers move into and out of second jobs. The model presents new insights into the economics of dual job holding and labour mobility. [adapted from author]
[This working paper is available free over the internet to readers in most developing or transition countries: if your internet connection does not automatically identify you as linking from one of these countries, you will be asked to fill in a registration form first. For those in other countries, either a series subscription or the purchase of individual reports is necessary]
Decentralisation of the health care sector has been underway in Kerala since the government order of 1995 which transferred health care institutions at various levels to local self government institutions (LSGI). The paper presents an overview of the decentralization process in Kerala, and discusses the problems of decentralization as perceived by elected representatives of LSGIs.
The paper finds that there are several problems with decentralization of the health care sector in Kerala. First, decentralization has caused a benefit spill over effect in secondary health care services, or in other words, the services of hospitals in municipalities are being utilized by those residing outside the area.
The paper states that benefit spill over is not so serious at the primary health care level as every village unit in Kerala has a primary health care service and therefore, a minimum level of service. The problem occurs in secondary health care services owing to the concentration of hospital beds in municipal towns, which leads to utilization of these services by residents from other areas.
The document then suggests that that this problem could be addressed with a well designed fiscal transfer system. At present, the paper notes that transfer of funds does not take into account the size of the health care institutions in a municipality, resulting in a mismatch between their financial resources and responsibilities.
However, the paper cautions that a system of transfers could lead to another problem - as hospitals are unequally distributed throughout the state, it could lead to unequal access to minimum levels of health care in different parts of the state.
To overcome this problem, the paper suggests some alternative solutions including:
Finally, the paper notes that presence of a pre-existing body (the Hospital Development Committee or HDC) in a decentralized system affects the proper functioning and accountability of the LSGI in the provision of health care services. The paper recommends that the role and relevance of HDC needs to be integrated with the role of the LSGI.
The paper discusses the problem of poverty and vulnerability: who were the poor? How did the answer to this question change over the decade? It looks at the typical types of interventions offered by governments, and how this package changed over the period. It surveys the evidence on effectiveness of these programs in reaching the poor, in reducing their income poverty, or reducing other aspects of poverty (e.g. social exclusion).
The responses examine specific aspects of the report namely:
The article also discusses reconsideration of policies and practice around HIV testing and partner notification, and emphasises the need for an increased focus on treatment. It is found that human rights-based approaches to HIV/AIDS prevention might have reduced the role of public health and social justice, which offer a more applied and practical framework for HIV/AIDS prevention and care in Africa’s devastating epidemic. [adapted from authors]
Please note: To read this article, you will first need to register with The Lancet. This process and access to the article is free of charge.
This paper, produced for the IAVI/IAEN Internet Forum on the Economics of AIDS Vaccines, aims to provide a brief background of the economic issues that justify public sector intervention in the HIV/AIDS vaccine market and to provide a menu of options for “technology push” and “demand pull” interventions by the public sector. [adapted from authors]
More specifically, this article examines why doctors need to know any health economics, what economics they do not need to know, how economists think, important specifics of health economics and gains from better understanding of health economics. It is concluded that better understanding between economists and health professionals can reduce incomprehension and antagonism, and offer opportunities for more efficient and equitable health systems. [adapted from author]
This manual, produced by the World Bank Institute, aims to present basic health economic concepts that can be used to analyse, from an economic perspective, which policy options make sense in different settings. The focus, therefore, is on conceptual and analytic tools from economics, as they are applied to the health sector. The goal is to convey the essential ideas that constitute an economic approach to health sector reform. This manual is divided into the following sections:
[adapted from author]
[adapted from author]
[adapted from author]
[adapted from author]