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The report describes in detail the different processes, projects and outcomes in each of the four countries under the initiative’s three main themes:
For each country the report reflects on what was successful about the project and the "lessons learned" about the sources of success, the risks and continuing difficulties, and how the programme could be improved.
The report concludes that:
Each project also sought to involve a broad range of parties in establishing clear measurable objectives, with the goal of influencing policy change. The report suggests that greater impact can be leveraged from such projects through working with governments and supporting them in the development of their own approaches to ARSH.
The paper sets out the standards, with a corresponding description of indicators, contra-indicators, and practical implications. The standards are grouped as follows:
These childcare standards are primarily intended for managers and practitioners in childcare services, but they can also form the basis of advocacy for the establishment of childcare policy and national minimum standards for the care of children in need of special protection. The standards can be used in a number of different ways to establish and promote basic standards for quality care. For example, the standards can be used for:
Its findings include that:
Thus the paper concludes that the legal and regulatory requirements for the practice and provision of private healthcare have serious weaknesses, which need to be addressed by the Ministry of Health and the various regulatory agencies. It presents a list of specific recommendations, including:
Links are also provided to a range of other useful resources dealing with the disaster. On Eldis these include:
External resources include:
The report reviews three phases of research:
The research findings indicate that youth gangs and youth crime are a phenomenon that affects young people within Phnom Penh at multiple levels. Key findings include:
The factors which cause young people to join youth gangs are both numerous and complex. The quantitative study found that the ten most popular reasons for joining gangs were: peer pressure, for fun, family problems, desire for power, gang pressure, drug use, poverty, a desire to be fashionable/attractive, desire for gang assistance, and media and cultural influences.
The qualitative research developed a clear distinction between princelings, the wealthy young males who join gangs, and paupers, young people without the same access to wealth and status. The findings suggest that princelings join gangs for respect and for increasing their "face" through developing a khsae, while paupers joined gangs in order to gain the benefits of membership in return for allegiance. Through this a parallel was established between systems of patronage and youth gangs.
The findings indicated that gangs were meeting numerous needs amongst young people. Arguably, until young people can find other viable opportunities for meeting such needs and expressing youth identity, the youth gang phenomenon will continue to exist. [adapted from author]
Although the social and cultural context pertaining to young people differs considerably among the 13 countries, the assessments found several universal challenges in the region:
[adapted from author]