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While vibrio cholera is an ‘equal opportunity’ infection, it is not gender-neutral. Sex, age and social status are factors that may contribute to individuals’ vulnerability to cholera, by dictating social roles and behaviours. This research analyses the roles socially ascribed to boys, girls, men and women in specific environmental, economic and cultural contexts to highlight groups that may be more vulnerable to cholera in Sierra Leone.
Saving for Change (SfC) is a community savings group programme designed and implemented by Oxfam America, Freedom from Hunger, and the Strømme Foundation. SfC operates in 13 countries in West Africa, Latin America and Asia.
This research conducted in Mali by Innovations for Poverty Action (IPA) and the Bureau of Applied Research in Anthropology (BARA) at the University of Arizona examines the impacts of Saving for Change. IPA conducted a randomized control trial (RCT) with 500 villages (6000 households) as well as high frequency surveys with a subset of 600 households over a three-year period between 2009-2012.
BARA and IPA concluded that Saving for Change is an effective programme providing real socioeconomic benefits to its intended populations:
Migration is transforming our world: by the end of this decade, most developing countries will have more people living in cities than in rural areas. Most migrants are in their early to mid-20s. Substantial numbers of adolescent girls are also on the move. Because of their age and gender, migrant girls are especially vulnerable to risks such as exploitative employment. But more evidence is needed on how to maximise migration’s benefits and minimise its risks for adolescent girls.
This policy brief provides a summary of key findings and recommendations from the the Population Council report, Girls on the Move: Adolescent Girls & Migration in the Developing World, from their Girls Count series. By providing a road map for policy makers and programme planners, the report focuses on the need to increase the visibility of migrant girls, reduce their vulnerability, and realise their full potential.
Main recommendations include:
prepare and equip girls before they migrate - with knowledge of their rights, life skills, IDs, and other portable assets
reduce the risk of trafficking and exploitation by connecting girls with safe places to stay and trusted individuals and by building support networks
ensure health and education services are sensitive to age, sex, and migration status
prepare girls for success
design girl-only approaches to reach domestic workers, child brides, and sexually exploited girls
develop qualitative and longitudinal studies to shed light on migrant girls’ experiences
maximise the benefits of migration by increasing adolescent girls’ visibility in policy and advocacy
Commissioned by the UK Hunger Alliance for the June 2013 'Hunger Summit' this report asks "How can smallholder agriculture contribute to improving food security and reducing under-nutrition?"
Potentially, smallholder agriculture can improve food security by making food available through production; reducing the real cost of food by increasing supply; generating incomes for farmers and those working the land as labourers, as well as to others in the rural economy from linkages in production and consumption that create additional activity and jobs.
Other considerations include the way that increased rural incomes are spent; impacts on women’s incomes, status within the household, and through the demands of farm work, the ability of mothers to allocate income to food and care of young children; the effect of farm work on energy of field workers; and, impacts on health of field workers and those living close to farms.
The record shows:
Smallholder agricultural development can be steered to have a greater impact on food security and nutrition through three measures:
Four points stand out for policy-makers:
These policies either have low costs or are not additional to the funding what would be needed for any serious programme of development. FAO in 2011 estimated the extra annual spending required to eliminate hunger by 2025 as US$50.2 billion, including US$7.5 billion for food and cash-based safety nets in keeping with the twin-track approach of dealing with long-term chronic hunger while also addressing short-term needs. Most of the extra investment is for physical infrastructure, and mostly in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia.
An extra US$50 billion a year may sound a lot, but consider the figure for sub-Saharan Africa of US$13.3 billion more. This is about US$15.50 for each of the 854M living in the region. The costs are small compared to the numbers who will potentially benefit from better food security and nutrition.
This report explores the causes, dynamics and persistence of poverty, and argues that current approaches to poverty often ignore its root causes. It analyses poverty reduction as part of long-term processes of social, economic and political transformation, and draws important lessons from the experiences of those countries that have successfully combined economic development and active social policy to reduce poverty.
The report examines the complex ways that poverty alleviation outcomes are shaped by the interconnection of ideas, institutions, policies and practices. It advocates for a pattern of growth and structural change that can generate and sustain jobs that are adequately remunerated and accessible to all – regardless of income or class status, gender, ethnicity or location.
Chapter four of the report considers gender inequalities in the home and in the market, and chapter seven considers care and wellbeing, including women's unpaid care.
This report documents Action Aid's multi-country programme on women's unpaid care work. The programme, which is based in Kenya, Nigeria, Nepal and Uganda, recognises that while all women, regardless of class, race, caste and ethnicity, are expected to provide care as part of their roles as mothers, wives, and daughters, women living in poverty are disproportionately affected by this responsibility. Unpaid care is more difficult to do in the context of poverty as basic amenities, and access to public services are lacking. The aim of the programme is to promote a collective responsibility for care provision across numerous actors - women and men, the community and the government - in order to help to respect, protect and fulfil women’s rights.
The programme was inspired by the efforts of some national governments to measure time use and make visible women’s overall workload including their work in their own households. Action Aid has developed a participatory time diary tool that can be completed by the women and men involved in the programme, and helps generate new thinking about the time spent by different groups on care work. The findings from the diary analysis are documented in this report, along with participants' reflections on the findings and sections on national policy change and financing for public services.
Action Aid has outlined its commitment to this issue in its 2012-2017 strategy, stating its intention to make women’s unpaid care work central to demands for quality public services financed through more progressive domestic resource mobilisation.
This article, written by Virginia Vargas, presents a feminist perspective of the World Social Forum (WSF), analysing how changes in feminist strategies are expressed in the organisation's space and processes. The author explains how, as a space of both convergence and conflict between old and new structures of thought, the WSF represents a fascinating and challenging arena for the feminist movement.
The article introduces the WSF as a place of experimentation – a break from unitary ideological paradigms that, instead, seeks to facilitate a multitude of different strategies and concepts. What links the groups is opposition to neo-liberalism; how and where this struggle is conducted marks where groups differ. It is within this context that feminism often finds itself challenging, as well as engaging with, WSF practice and process, particularly with regard to the harbouring of old patriarchal and exclusionary practices.
Although women made up 54% of the participants at the first WSF, 85% of those in the most important, 'official' panels were men. Other criticisms include that the WSF runs the risk of becoming an exclusive event only attended by those who can afford it, and that questions surrounding representation in the Organising Committees and the International Committee create tensions in the vision of the WSF as an alternative or revolutionary space.
Over the course of five WSFs, feminism has made increasing gains in both visibility and recognition, contributing to a consultation-led reform of the WSF structure in 2005, from a largely top-down structure to a broader, bottom-up methodology for organising panels. The aim was to bring different networks together that work on similar issues, allowing for the expression of diverse and plural feminisms. This is vital if the nuance of cultural context is be understood; a crucial component of transitioning from unitary mindsets of universal solutions, to a view of gender as a transversal and cross-cutting dimension within a multitude of other political and cultural struggles.
In this report, Nobel Peace Laureates Jody Williams and Rigoberta Menchú Tum write that the levels of violence against women in Mexico, Honduras and Guatemala have reached crisis dimensions. They describe their work leading a women’s rights fact-finding delegation that travelled to these countries in January 2012 to investigate the crisis. This investigation found many consistencies among women’s stories across the three nations (for example regarding sexual violence or forced disappearances), and noted inadequate government responses to these crimes – the vast majority of cases are never even investigated.
The delegation was organised by the Nobel Women’s Initiative, JASS (Just Associates) and prominent national organisations that formed host committees in each country. Over the course of ten days, the delegation gathered evidence of the impact of escalating violence in the region on women and women’s rights, assessed the role and response of governments, and evaluated ways of supporting women who are organising to protect themselves and their communities. They gathered evidence and heard testimonies from over 200 women survivors of violence and human rights defenders from organisations working against violence, and also met with a number of government officials and representatives of international organisations.
The delegation concluded that the international community must urgently respond to the growing crisis of violence against women in Mexico, Honduras and Guatemala. They find the problem to have many causes, including increasingly militarised and patriarchal societies and current security policies supported by the US and Canadian governments, as well as the lack of justice and economic pressures in the region.
The report includes a variety of recommendations including the following:
– Pressure should be placed on the governments of the U.S. and Canada, Honduras, Mexico and Guatemala to ensure that they: uphold their responsibility to prevent violence and human rights violations; develop gender-sensitive mechanisms for protecting women human rights defenders; investigate complaints of human rights violations against women and women human rights defenders using established protocols for dealing with gender-specific violations; prosecute violations; and compensate survivors.
– Violence against women and against women activists/human rights defenders, including the targeting of women human rights defenders should be publicly denounced and legal action demanded by diplomats, media and members of the international community.
Support for this women’s rights fact-finding mission was provided by a number of individuals as well as the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, UN Women – Latin American and Caribbean Section, and the MDG3 Fund and Funding Leadership Opportunities for Women (FLOW) of the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs.