FeedBurner makes it easy to receive content updates in My Yahoo!, Newsgator, Bloglines, and other news readers.
A message from this feed's publisher:This is one of the news feeds from Eldis. You can also choose to receive the content of this feed as an email message. Or we can supply you with HTML code to add the feed to your own website. Visit http://www.eldis.org/go/newsfeeds for more information, or contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org
Smallholder farmers in Uganda face a wide range of agricultural production risks, with climate change and variability presenting new risks and vulnerabilities. Climate related risks such as prolonged dry seasons have become more frequent and intense with negative impacts on agricultural livelihoods and food security.
This paper assesses farmers’ perceptions of climate change and variability and analyses historical trends in temperature and rainfall in two rural districts of Uganda in order to determine the major climate-related risks affecting crop and livestock production and to identify existing innovative strategies for coping with and adapting to climate-related risks, with potential for up-scaling in rural districts. The traditional coping strategies that have been developed by these communities overtime provide a foundation for designing effective adaptation strategies.
Drought, disease and pest epidemics, decreasing water sources, lack of pasture, bush fires, hailstorms, changes in crop flowering and fruiting times were the major climate-related risks reported across the two districts. Farmers use a wide range of agricultural technologies and strategies to cope with climate change and climate variability. Mulching, intercropping and planting of food security crops were among the most common practices used. Other strategies included water harvesting for domestic consumption, other soil and water conservation technologies and on-farm diversification. Farmers often use a combination of these technologies and practices to enhance agricultural productivity. The average maximum temperatures increased across the two districts. Trends in average annual rainfall showed mixed results with a general decline in one district and a relatively stable trend in the other district. Perceived changes in climate included erratic rainfall onset and cessation, which were either early or late, poor seasonal distribution of rainfall and little rainfall. Farmers also reported variations in temperatures. Farmers’ perception of changing rainfall characteristics and increasing temperatures were consistent with the observed historical climatic trends from meteorological data.
The analysis supports several recommendations for improving the supply, delivery, and iterative feedback and improvement of climate services in Malawi:
This summary of CCAFS baseline findings from Malawi reveals the current state of climate information use at the local level, gaps and needs of farmers before they can benefit from improved science-based climate information, identifying the role of ICTs and rural radio to reach marginalized rural communities. It is hoped that these findings will offer valuable insights to the GFCS Adaptation Program in Africa, and future projects working to scale up relevant climate services for farmers and pastoralists in the country.
Livestock as a sector is extremely important to the global economy and to rural livelihoods. As of 2013, there was an estimated 38 billion livestock in the world, or five animals for every person. Most (81%) were in developing countries. Around one billion smallholder farmers keep livestock, many of them women. The burden of animal disease in developing countries is high: livestock disease probably kills 20% of ruminants and more than 50% of poultry each year causing a loss of approximately USD 300 billion per year. Climate change can exacerbate disease in livestock, and some diseases are especially sensitive to climate change. Among 65 animal diseases identified as most important to poor livestock keepers, 58% are climate sensitive. Climate change may also have indirect effects on animal disease, and these may be greater than the direct effects.
In order to address climate impacts on this sector, this paper makes the following recommendations:
The purpose of this working paper is to provide insight into how we can use novel approaches to scale up research findings on climate-smart agriculture (CSA) to meaningfully address the challenges of poverty and climate change. The approaches described include those based on value chains and private sector involvement, policy engagement, and information and communication technologies and agro-advisory services. The paper draws on 11 case studies to exemplify these new approaches to scaling up. These are synthesised using a simple conceptual framework that draws on a review of the most important challenges to scaling up. This provides the material for a discussion around how particular scaling up approaches can help to address some of the challenges of scaling up. The analysis offers insights into scaling approaches, challenges and some opportunities for scaling CSA practices and technologies.
The authors conclude that multi-stakeholder platforms and policy making networks are key to effective upscaling, especially if paired with capacity enhancement, learning, and innovative approaches to support decision making of farmers. Projects that aim to intervene upstream at higher leverage points can be highly efficient and probably offer cost-effective dissemination strategies that reach across scales and include new and more diverse partnerships. However, these novel approaches still face challenges of promoting uptake, which remain contextualized and thus require a certain level of local engagement, while continuously paying attention to farmer’s needs and their own situations.
This study was undertaken in Wote division, Makueni district, Eastern province, Kenya, to test the effectiveness of different methods of communicating downscaled seasonal climate forecast information, and to assess its impact on management and productivity of smallholder farms. The communication methods tested include training workshops aimed at helping farmers understand downscaled probabilistic climate forecast information, agro-advisories that combined forecast information with advice on potential management options, and a combination of training and agro-advisory workshops. The study was conducted with about 120 farmers, 10 from each of 12 villages selected randomly from the villages that are within a 5 km radius from Kampi Ya Mawe research station for which long-term climate records are available, during the 2011-2012 short rain season. Three surveys, implemented during the pre-, mid-, and end-season periods, captured changes in management, productivity, and attitudes, associated with the provision of climate information.
Relative to the control sample, farmers with access to enhanced climate information reduced their cropped area, invested in more intensive crop management, and achieved higher yields with attractive returns on investment relative to farmers in control villages. Farmers from treatment villages also demonstrated appreciation of the role of climate information in planning and managing farm activities, higher satisfaction with the season, and strong interest in receiving climate information on a regular basis. This interest was demonstrated by their willingness to pay a modest amount for the service if required.
The evaluation was disaggregated by gender. Gender influenced adjustments to crop mix in response to climate information, with women preferring short-duration legumes. Gender did not appear to affect the subjective value put on climate information, or willingness to pay.
Improving productivity of sheep and goats (i.e. small ruminants- SR) under smallholder farming systems faced with challenges of unfavourable climatic events has been identified as one means of enhancing livelihoods of communities living in these areas. Interventions are targeted through clusters of farmers grouped into “climate smart villages” (CSV) under a collaborative action by CCAFS, ViAgroforestry, World Neighbours and the Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization.
This baseline study was implemented to understand the socio-economic aspects, population structure, management practices and production constraints of SR in the CSV of the Lower Nyando basin of Kenya. The results indicate that the community is mainly comprised of young people (mainly students) and men and women above 50 years of age who manage the various households. Land sizes owned are small, with 58% of the households owning less than one hectare of land on which they grow crops and rear on average eight SR in addition to some cattle and poultry. The SR reared are mainly indigenous breeds, with some crossbreds resulting from the few introduced Red Maasai sheep and the Galla goats for improved productivity. Breeding of SR is not controlled, and since larger animals fetch better prices on the market, over time negative selection has affected the SR population. SR are generally left to graze on stovers from crops, and take a long time to grow to maturity (up to 4 years). Farmers in the CSV know what traits they desire in their SR, and are willing to learn and change their practices in order to improve their livelihoods.
It is evident that the organization of the households into CSVs provides a great opportunity for capacity development which should have a strong component of engaging the youth, and the development of a selection and breed improvement program for SR in the Lower Nyando area.
Costa Rica is developing a Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action (NAMA) that will provide climate finance for best livestock management practices that generate climate change mitigation benefits. The LivestockPlus research project, implemented by the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) and partners, seeks to inform the NAMA by providing scientific evidence for improved pasture and cattle management to sustainably improve yields while also reducing emissions. Women are a target beneficiary of the research, yet the relevance of gender to the project’s aims has been unclear. A scoping exercise to identify opportunities to strengthen the gender component was therefore undertaken in 2015 using a case study in Costa Rica and a literature review. This exercise identified women’s roles as (1) co-decision-makers with men in the household, (2) users of milk for making cheese (most households) and (3) farmers directly involved in livestock production activities under some circumstances. Girls, together with boys, frequently played a role in the daily care of animals, which may influence girls’ capacities and willingness to become future farmers. The scoping exercise indicated opportunities for enhancing women’s roles in the cattle value chain and more generally, supporting women’s inclusion in (i) livestock and innovation for climate change mitigation, (ii) gender-responsive implementation of the NAMA, and (iii) capacity development.
The following priority actions are recommended for strengthening gender research in Costa Rica:
Conceptualising smallholder farming households as collective action institutions, that make interrelated decisions about investment, resource use and allocation in a common household farm, may contribute to understanding widely observed uncooperative outcomes, such as yield gaps, gender gaps in productivity, suboptimal or Pareto inefficient sustainable intensification and climate change adaptation.
This paper examines the relation between participatory intra-household decision making – as a set of ‘rules of the game’ that reduces information and bargaining power asymmetries – and cooperative, i.e. more efficient, sustainable and equitable, outcomes in smallholder coffee farming households in Uganda. We find experimental evidence that participatory decision making is positively related to investments in the common household farm. Consumption behaviour however is not fairer nor more sustainable. Participatory decision making is associated with more cooperative actual outcomes such as greater investment in sustainable intensification, consideration of women’s interests, fairer reproductive intra-household labour division, more balanced control over cash crop income and improved livelihoods.
As the effects of climate change set in, and population and income growth exert increasing pressure on natural resources, food security is becoming a pressing challenge for countries worldwide. Awareness of these threats is critical to transforming concern into long-term planning, and modeling tools like the one used in the present study are beneficial for strategic support of decision making in the agricultural policy arena.
The focus of this investigation is the Republic of Korea, where economic growth has resulted in large shifts in diet in recent decades, in parallel with a decline in both arable land and agricultural production, and a tripling of agricultural imports, compared to the early 2000s. Although these are recognized as traits of a rapidly growing economy, officials and experts in the country recognize that the trends expose the Republic of Korea to climate change shocks and fluctuations in the global food market.
This study uses the IMPACT (International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade) economic model to investigate possible future trends of both domestic food production and dependence on food imports, as well as the effects from adoption of agricultural practices consistent with a climate change adaptation strategy. The goal is to help assess the prospects for sustaining improvements in food security and possibly inform the national debate on agricultural policy.
Results show that historical trends of harvested area and imports may continue into the future under climate change. Although crop models suggest negative long-term impacts of climate change on rice yield in the Republic of Korea, the economic model simulations show that intrinsic productivity growth and market effects have the potential to limit the magnitude of losses; rice production and yield are projected to keep growing between 2010 and 2050, with a larger boost when adoption of improved technologies is taken into consideration. At the same time, food production and net exports from the country’s major trading partners are also projected to increase, although diminished by climate change effects. In sum, these results show that kilocalorie availability will keep growing in the Republic of Korea, and although climate change may have some impact by reducing the overall availability, the effect does not appear strong enough to have significant consequences on projected trends of increasing food security.
While efforts to adapt to the impacts of climate change have generally increased, the impression is that there is a negligible effort to include the vulnerable areas in the agenda. This paper seeks to fill in the gap by presenting an agricultural extension mechanism to tap high school students as information providers of climate-smart rice agriculture information in their rice-farming communities. This paper looks at the characteristics of the high school students who served as infomediaries as well as their information sources and perceptions on climate change; the best teaching media that can be used; and the infomediation pathways that can be drawn from this initiative.
Two survey rounds, 2014 and 2015, were used as data sources. Focus group discussions and interviews were also conducted. Chi-square tests were also employed. Data show that females are more likely to be infomediaries than males. Schools serve as the primary sources of information on climate change, and students generally equate climate change to extreme weather events such as drought. Various teaching media explored seem to be useful in various development contexts. Teachers are seen as the champions of this initiative. Hence, this initiative rests heavily on the extent of capacity enhancement that can be extended to the teachers so they are in a better position to train their students in the future.
In the context of agriculture and food security, science innovations on mitigating and adapting to climate change are available, but these are not well shared with next users and end users (especially farmers) and the public due to inadequate coverage by the mainstream media, a powerful partner in communication and engagement. The urgent need for media practitioners to have a n accurate, science-based understanding of climate change and enhance their skills on environmental reporting gave CCAFS -SEA the impetus to conduct a series of inter-Center media seminar-work shops for key Southeast Asian media practitioners in collaboration with NARS and national media partners.
Aside from the enhancing the capacity of the media in reporting climate change, agriculture and food security, this initiative paved the way for stronger inter-Center collaboration and showcased a public-private-CSO partnership in communication and engagement for climate change mitigation and adaptation in the region.
Recommendations specifically for journalists:
Recommendations specifically for CGIAR and other research centers:
Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture comprise 10-12% of anthropocentric global emissions; and 76% of the agricultural emissions are generated in the developing world. Landscape GHG accounting is an effective way to efficiently develop baseline emissions and appropriate mitigation approaches. In a 9,736-hectare case study area dominated by rice and wheat in the Karnal district of Haryana state, India, the authors used a low-cost landscape agricultural GHG accounting method with limited fieldwork, remote sensing, and biogeochemical modeling. The authors used the DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) model software to simulate crop growth and carbon and nitrogen cycling to estimate net GHG emissions, with information based on the mapping of cropping patterns over time using multi-resolution and multi-temporal optical remote sensing imagery.
The paper recommends a multi-phase approach to increase efficiency and reduce cost in GHG accounting. Field campaigns and aspects of remote sensing image characteristics can be optimized for targeted landscapes through solid background research. An appropriate modeling approach can be selected based on crop and soil characteristics. Soil data in developing world landscapes remain a significant source of uncertainty for studies like these and should remain a key research and data development effort.
This paper outlines the development of a women-led agroforestry and improved cookstoves project in Honduras. Analysis aims to contribute to learning for future projects, especially projects aiming to improve gender relations. The project intended to increase gender equity among smallholder farmers while reducing greenhouse gas emissions through agroforestry and fuel-efficient stoves.
The project was successful due to:
Areas for improvement include harnessing farmers’ knowledge of crop breeding and research to test a wider range of coffee varieties under different conditions, and improving data collection systems. Main technical findings cover topics from micro-catchment to integrated pest management to micro- financing.
This report includes an explanation of the community’s needs; a description of the technical, social, scientific and economic innovations employed in the execution of the project; and a series of recommendations to aid in the development of future projects.
The Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research’s (CGIAR) program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) is aiming to address the complex and dynamic relationships between climate change, agricultural practices and food security. Its strategy for impact recognizes that good research may only be one of the multiple cornerstones of research for development. As such, attention should also be paid to partnership development, scaling up, cross-disciplinary, capacity enhancement and enabling governance and policy (CCAFS, 2009). In West Africa, the program is implementing a participatory action research to address the problem of community vulnerability to climate variability and change. Hart (1996) defined action research as “problem-focused, context specific, participative, involving a change intervention geared to improvement, and a process based on continuous interaction between research, action, reflection and evaluation”. Eden and Huxham (1996) argued that in action research, the research output is a result from the involvement of participating individual members of one or several organizations on solving a problem of concern to them.
This paper analyzes patterns of social interaction within the organizations working in the Yatenga province of Burkina Faso, and develops purposive partnership framework that can facilitate the scaling up of the action research outputs and outcomes. A diagnostic tool for evaluating group functioning was used to elucidate the current situation of partnership development in this province. Further, partnership and networking was analyzed using the network density which describes the portion of the potential connections in a network of organizations that are actual connections.
The results suggest that the desired partnership as requested/expected by stakeholders is far from working as it could be. The stakeholders therefore agreed that network density need to be increased for future partnership, with clearly defined vision, shared responsibilities in generating knowledge and results, and capacities to monitor, evaluate and communicate on the program impacts. For this purpose, future partnership need to combine scale-based and competency-based frameworks to be beneficial at scale and pulling together organizations’ competencies. Implementing both frameworks would lead to an effective partnership on climate change adaptation in agriculture and food security. However, the successful development of this purposive partnership will require capacity development for the group of partnering organizations.
The overall goal of this paper is to apply the climate change and social learning monitoring and evaluation (M&E) framework of the CGIAR’s Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) Policies and Institutions Flagship program to a climate change innovation platform. The Strategic Pilot project on Adaptation to Climate Change (SPACC) is selected to illustrate the usefulness of the social learning M&E framework and add to the social learning evidence base. The SPACC project was launched as a three-year (2010-2013) pilot initiative in Andhra Pradesh, a state in southern India to strengthen the knowledge and capacities of communities to respond to climate variability and change impacts in seven drought- prone districts.
The social learning component of SPACC is captured at three levels: community level, project level and beyond the project level. The CCSL M&E framework identifies a total of 30 primary indicators across four areas that form key components of the theory of change, viz. Iterative Learning, Capacity Development, Engagement, and Challenging Institutions. Among these four areas, indicators for capacity building and iterative learning were most easily observable in the case of SPACC. While the process and outcome indicators were observed for Engagement, it was difficult to study the quality of engagement and its impact in terms of change in value/practice. Engagement can be quantified in terms of number of new institutions formed, representation of marginalized groups and number of Farmer Climate Schools conducted. It was difficult to study indicators relevant to challenging institutions, primarily because the SPACC activities tried to build on and strengthen existing institutional structures where possible. Additionally, as the project primarily focused on building capacities and knowledge base at the community level, the learning beyond the project level was not as evident.
Climate-smart agriculture (CSA) is being widely promoted as a solution for food insecurity and climate change adaptation in food systems of sub-Saharan Africa, while simultaneously reducing the rate of greenhouse gas emissions. Governments throughout Africa are writing
policies and programs to promote CSA practices despite uncertainty about the ability for practices to meet the triple CSA objectives of CSA.
I this paper, the auuthors conducted a systematic review of 175 peer-reviewed and grey literature studies, to gauge the impact of over seventy potential CSA practices on CSA outcomes in Tanzania and Uganda. Using a total of 6,342 observations, it was found that practice impacts were highly context (i.e. farming system and location) specific. Nevertheless, practice effect across CSA outcomes generally agreed in direction.
While results suggest that CSA is indeed possible, lack of mitigation data precludes a more conclusive statement. Furthermore, the inclusion of potential adoption rates changes the potential of CSA practices to achieve benefits at scale. Given the uncertainty and variable impacts of practices across regions and outcomes, it is critical for decision makers to prioritize practices based on their desired outcomes and local context.
Climate-smart agriculture (CSA)—agriculture and food systems that sustainably increase food production, improve resilience (or adaptive capacity) of farming systems, and mitigate climate change when possible—has quickly been integrated into the global development agenda. However, the empirical evidence base for CSA has not been assembled, complicating the transition from CSA concept to concrete actions, and contributing to ideological disagreement among development practitioners. Thus, there is an urgent need to evaluate current knowledge on the effectiveness of CSA to achieve its intended benefits and inform discourse on food, agriculture, and climate change.
This systematic review intends to establish the scientific evidence base of CSA practices to inform the next steps in development of agricultural programming and policy. We will evaluate the impact of 73 promising farm-level management practices across five categories (agronomy, agroforestry, livestock, postharvest management, and energy systems) to assess their contributions to the three CSA pillars: (1) agronomic and economic productivity, (2) resilience and adaptive capacity, and (3) climate change mitigation in the developing world. The resulting data will be compiled into a searchable Web-based database and analytical engine that can be used to assess the relative effectiveness and strength of evidence for CSA, as well as identify best-fit practices for specific farming and development contexts. This represents the largest meta-analysis of agricultural practices to date.
This paper reviews information on climate finance for agricultural adaptation. By examining climate finance mechanisms that are currently in place, the report explores how different mechanisms are set up and managed and conducts an analysis related to governance, funding scope, eligibility, and social inclusiveness. The report recognizes the financial gap for agricultural adaptation and management challenges for existing funding sources; it also indicates the barriers for governments, civil society, and communities in developing countries to access those resources. The report also discusses topics for further research in areas such as increasing financial flows, strengthening the management of climate funds, improving resource accessibility, preparing eligible recipients for climate finance readiness, and the implementation of INDCs to further enhance the climate finance for agricultural adaptation.
Research shows that paying attention to gender matters not only for the equity of climate change adaptation programs but also for their efficiency and effectiveness. Many organizations working to increase resilience to climate change with local communities also recognize the importance of gender yet the degree to which gender is integrated in project implementation is unclear.
This study examines the extent to which organizations involved in climate change and resilience work are incorporating gender-sensitive approaches into their programs using data collected through a Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) survey and Key Informant Interviews (KII) targeted at government agencies, local and international NGOs, and other practitioners.
The results show that although organizations have access to research on climate change from various sources, more evidence is needed to inform gender integration into climate change adaptation programs across a range of local contexts. Moreover, large gaps exist in integrating gender into projects, particularly during project design. Lack of staff capacity on gender, lack of funding to support gender integration and socio-cultural constraints were identified as key barriers to gender integration by many respondents, particularly from government agencies. Increasing the capacity of organizations to carry out rigorous research and pay greater to the gender dimensions of their programs is possible through greater collaboration across organizations and more funding for gender-sensitive research.
Smallholder farmers in East Africa need information and knowledge on appropriate climate- smart agriculture (CSA) technologies and practices, and institutional innovations in order to effectively adapt to climate change and cope with climate variability. This paper assesses farmer uptake of climate-smart agricultural practices and innovations following a farmer learning journey through the Farms of the Future (FotF) approach. First, we explore and assess the various CSA technologies and practices, including institutional innovations farmers are using. Second, we identify and document farmer learning and dissemination pathways that can enhance uptake of CSA technologies and practices. Third, we identify existing institutions that can enhance uptake of CSA practices. We use household survey data, complimented with qualitative information from focus group discussions and key informant interviews. The results show farmers are using a variety of CSA technologies and practices, and institutional innovations. Improved crop varieties, agroforestry, and scientific weather forecast information were cited as the main CSA practices used. To minimize their risks and reduce vulnerabilities, farmers are diversifying and integrating five to ten practices in one season. Matengo pits, Savings and Credit Cooperative Organization (SACCOs) and energy efficient cook stoves were used by very few farmers due to high initial investment costs and unsuitability to the area. Over 95% of the farmers reported receiving agricultural information orally from a variety of sources including government extension workers, seed companies, researchers, traditional experts, neighbors, radio agricultural shows, religious groups, farmer groups, and family members. Farmers acknowledged the FotF approach as a useful tool that enabled them to interact with other farmers and learn new CSA practices and innovations.
With the concept climate-smart agriculture (CSA) being relatively new, there is a need to test and develop practical and systematic methodologies and approaches for documenting and evaluating CSA practices in the field. The implementation of CCAFS’ Climate-Smart Villages (CSV) involves identifying, assessing and selecting climate-smart farming practices.
This report contains three sections: (i) a framework for identifying and assessing CSA in the field with a long list of CSA indicators in identifying and monitoring CSA interventions; (ii) cost-benefit analysis of some selected climate-smart farming systems; and (iii) the participatory process of prioritizing CSA options with the villagers. The work builds on experiences from the My Loi CSV and its scaling domains in Ky Anh district, Ha Tinh province, in the north-central region of Viet Nam.
To kick off a pilot rural radio campaign on climate smart agriculture (CSA), three seminar workshops titled “Climate Change: iBroadkas Mo!”, for rural broadcasters in the Philippines were organized by the Philippine Federation of Rural Broadcasters (PFRB), with the support of the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security in Southeast Asia (CCAFS-SEA).
Participants for these seminar workshops were member broadcasters of the PFRB in strategic regions of the Philippines. Moreover it was also attended by other media practitioners and government information officers from around the area. Participants to the workshops were familiarized with climate change concepts to improve their capacities in broadcasting climate-related issues and concepts to their audiences. The total number of participants for the whole series was 180 which included 147 practicing broadcasters, 19 government information officers and five staff members from the PFRB. Presentations and discussions during the workshops focused on CSA and techniques and practices for broadcasting climate-related issues effectively. Participants were asked to produce prototype scripts and radio programs, which may include two radio spots, a short interview or voice clips of experts, on CSA as their output for the workshops.
The PFRB campaign on climate change, which was launched during the workshops, will engage the services and programs of 150 rural broadcasters in the Philippines in mobilizing the rural sector (particularly farmers, fisherfolk and rural women) and advocating the practice of climate smart agriculture. Members of the PFRB and their network of community radio practitioners will be provided with ready-to-be-aired interviews and scripts on climate-smart agriculture. The broadcast materials will be produced in the languages of selected pilot regions. To motivate broadcasters, a reward and incentive system based on listenership and impact shall be put in place.
Tropical coastal areas are highly vulnerable to climate change. Coastal ecosystems can support the adaptation of both human and natural systems but only if they are sustainably managed. The conservation, restoration or sustainable management of ecosystems to provide ecosystem services that help people adapt to climate change is known as ‘ecosystem-based adaptation’ (EbA).
The coastlines of Indonesia and the Philippines harbour unique biodiversity and are among the largest and most resource-rich in the world. They are also affected by a variety of hazards related to climate change. This policy brief assesses the potential for implementing EbA in the coastal areas of these two countries through an analysis of existing adapta- tion and resource management practices and policies, and key informant interviews with decision-makers, practitioners and researchers.
Inconsistent climate change policies increase the vulnerability of marginalised populations and lead to resource conflicts. A human rights-based approach can help protect the adaptive capacities of climate vulnerable populations.
Climate change raises critical issues about the linkages between human rights and the environment. With intensified natural hazards and increasingly uncertain weather conditions, more effort will be needed to safeguard the rights of vulnerable populations to be protected from hazards and to retain their capabilities to undertake their own adaptation strategies.
In order to assess how HRBA is applied to climate change it is essential to look at four specific human rights principles:
This policy brief draws on examples from Kenya and Cambodia to illustrate the opportunities and obstacles for putting HRBA into practice.
This brief summarizes the findings of a project output for the Policy Information and Response Platform on Climate Change and Rice in ASEAN and its Member Countries (PIRCCA), being implemented by the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI). The report focuses on the
results of the survey conducted in the first half of 2015 on climate change perception and adaptation strategies of male and female farmers in three selected provinces across the Mekong River Delta (MRD) region in Vietnam: An Giang, Bac Lieu, and Tra Vihn.
To cope with climate change issues, farmers need:
Challenges related to climate change faced by individual households are likely to be the same challenges as their neighbors. Thus, future climate change studies in Vietnam should also include spatial analysis.
RDCP II was a 5-year project funded by the Feed the Future (FTF) initiative. Land O’Lakes has implemented the project in 17 districts across all five provinces of Rwanda. This project aimed to reduce poverty through expanded production and marketing of quality milk that generates income and employment, and improves nutrition of rural households. The activity’s development hypothesis was that improving raw milk quality and efficiency of production, together with marketing all along the dairy value chain, would pay high returns to public and private investment.
In the summer of 2015, Myanmar experienced massive floods and associated landslides that affected nine million people. Since then, the country has seen dramatic political change, while confronting a litany of ongoing humanitarian crises. As the government strives to juggle humanitarian needs with longer-term development issues, it must confront its extreme vulnerability to disasters and climate change. At present, flood-affected communities in some of the poorest and most conflict-ridden areas of the country have yet to recover, including those which were hastily relocated. In the near-term, the government and its development partners must help those displaced by the 2015 floods and landslides to restore their livelihoods and enhance their resilience to future disasters. Over the longer-term, the government will also need to work with its partners to build its technical capacity to better mitigate the adverse impacts of disasters and climate change on displacement and migration. Failure to do so will only continue to undermine development and exacerbate Myanmar’s other challenges.
African decision-makers need reliable, accessible, and trustworthy information about the continent’s climate, and how this climate might change in future, if they are to plan appropriately to meet the region’s development challenges.
This report is designed as a guide for scientists, policy-makers, and practitioners on the continent. The research presents an overview of climate trends across central, eastern, western, and southern Africa, and is distilled into a series of factsheets that are tailored for specific sub-regions and countries.
The report consists of 15 factsheets that are grouped into three sections:
During March and April 2016, ASSAR India’s researchers from the Indian Institute for Human Settlements (IIHS) conducted 18 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) in nine villages in Kolar District, Karnataka. The FGDs were gender-differentiated and ensured representation from different income groups, castes, and religions.
Focussing on migration as a key livelihood strategy to address vulnerability, and one that spans the rural-urban continuum, this project conducted research in the Kolar District. Kolar falls in the eastern dry agro-climatic zone in south Karnataka.
The district is characterised by erratic rainfall, low soil moisture, high groundwater exploitation, and rapid land use change, all of which are mediated by social inequalities and governance challenges to shape local vulnerability.
Climatic and non-climatic stressors challenge natural resource-based livelihoods in the district and people are coping by moving into tenuous and unsafe employment in urban centres to work as construction labourers, gardeners, and domestic helpers. Migration and commuting has emerged as a key livelihood strategy, but one that may further exacerbate the vulnerability of those who move into cities and those who are left behind.
The five-year (2014-2018) Adaptation at Scale in Semi-Arid Regions (ASSAR) project uses insights from multi-scale, interdisciplinary work to inform and transform climate adaptation policy and practice in ways that promote the long-term wellbeing of the most vulnerable and those with the least agency. This brief identifies and characterises the key vulnerabilities in Sangamner.
The five-year (2014-2018) Adaptation at Scale in Semi-Arid Regions (ASSAR) project uses insights from multi-scale, interdisciplinary work to inform and transform climate adaptation policy and practice in ways that promote the long-term wellbeing of the most vulnerable and those with the least agency. In this brief identifies and and characterises the key vulnerabilities in Moyar Bhavani.
The five-year (2014-2018) Adaptation at Scale in Semi-Arid Regions (ASSAR) project uses insights from multi-scale, interdisciplinary work to inform and transform climate adaptation policy and practice in ways that promote the long-term wellbeing of the most vulnerable and those with the least agency.
Although slightly variable across study sites, the SARs of India have experienced accelerated warming trends between 1971 and 2007. Mean daily temperatures have increased marginally faster than the national average (0.02 oC/year).
Rainfall patterns for the same period have been highly variable across SARs of India, and the country in general. Across the ASSAR states, the average summer monsoon rainfall has decreased by 0.01-1.40 mm/year, and the monsoon onset and rainfall patterns have become more erratic.
Extreme weather events are expected to increase in most of India and some semi-arid regions are considered to be high vulnerability areas. The SARs are particularly prone to flash floods, and have witnessed a noticeable increase in hot days and heat waves between 1961-2010, lasting as long as 12–16 days in some areas.
Critical sectors (e.g., agriculture, forestry, water resources) will be affected as drought and flood hazards intensify the demand for land, food, water and livestock forage.
Heat-stress related impacts will be more severe for rural and urban communities as thresholds on livestock, crops and infrastructure will be reached sooner.
India faces rapid and unplanned urbanization, resulting in poor quality of urban life. Migrants are more vulnerable due to a lack of access to public services and limited livelihood options. Extreme weather exacerbates existing locational risks through urban flooding, heat stress and disease dynamics.
The way forward:
India faces a dynamic climatic and non-climatic risk profile. These climatic and non-climatic risks, separately and in interaction, make people and systems highly vulnerable. Key vulnerabilities and risks are found to be deeply embedded within the existing social and biophysical conditions of people and socio-ecological systems, which emerge as critical barriers to effective, widespread and sustained adaptation.
ASSAR has recently completed its Regional Diagnostic Study phase which took stock of the current state of knowledge on the extant and emergent climatic and non-climatic risks in Africa and India. During this phase ASSAR explored why different people are differentially vulnerable to these risks and how people, governments and other stakeholders at various scales are responding to current and future climatic and non-climatic challenges.
Most current development-adaptation interventions in India and the sub-regions focus on water and agricultural sectors. Evidence from various adaptation projects suggests that risk management strategies at various scales and initiated by various actors, are enabling building of local adaptive capacities. However, such changes are not uniform across regions, sectors or scales. India’s rural systems have seen relatively higher and longer investment in direct climate change adaptation projects, as well as those that have adaptation co-benefits such as interventions for livelihood diversification, biodiversity conservation, sustainable agriculture and natural resource management. Given large development deficits and the vulnerabilities of the rural poor, coping strategies to manage risk are more common than adaptive action.
Governance and institutional barriers emerge as a key constraint to ongoing and future adaptation. Governance in much of India is fragmented, making coordination across different agencies and scales challenging. Cities in particular accumulate and generate new risks through unplanned development and deepening inequality. Urban settlements are vulnerable to food, energy and water fragility and consequent social and political unrest. Planning, including for risk management, often takes place at higher levels of government, while the role of local bodies, civil society and communities tends to be that of implementation with little room for innovation. The ways in which governance acts as a key barrier to adaptation are a) multiplicity and redundancy of actors and institutions, b) fragmentation of planning and execution, c) prevalence of top-down planning, d) institutional rigidity and path dependency and e) absence of certain actors and sectors in the planning process such as private sector participation and health.
India and the sub-regions face a dynamic climatic and non-climatic risk profile. These climatic and non-climatic risks, separately and in interaction, make people and systems highly vulnerable. Key vulnerabilities and risks are found to be deeply embedded within the existing social and biophysical conditions of people and socio-ecological systems, which emerge as a critical barrier to effective, widespread and sustained adaptation.
The welfare cost of climate change impacts in India varies across geography and sectors. Given the natural resource-based livelihoods, high incidence of poverty and inherent socio-economic inequities, a significant section of the rural population is resource-constrained to adapt to the current and projected future climate variability. While households dependent on agriculture are affected directly, those living in urban areas are also affected by declining agricultural productivity and ongoing agrarian crisis in semi-arid areas. The situation is compounded by rapid and unplanned urbanisation, resulting in an intense competition for resources and land. The quality of life for the urban poor is characterised by the lack of access to social capital, poor quality of employment and exclusion from public services; in turn making the inhabitants highly vulnerable to social and environmental risk.
Critical sectors in the sub-region (agriculture, forests, water) are affected significantly by the changing climatic regime. Available evidence on the changing climatic regime in India and the sub-regions underscores the emergent climatic dimensions of risks that the sub-regions are exposed to.
The Adaptation at Scale in Semi-Arid Regions (ASSAR) project aims to develop a nuanced understanding of climate vulnerability and adaptation in semi-arid regions (SARs), as well as implementable plans to transform current adaptation processes in a way that makes them proactive, and widespread. This research project is being implemented in regions of Africa and India.
Three major developmental transformation (‘transformative adaptation’) options exist in India: 1) increase productivity of existing biophysical and socio-economic systems, 2) create new sustainable livelihood forms and/or, 3) shift population from fragile ecosystems. It is pertinent to highlight that whichover option is embraced, it should be able to sustain existing ecosystems to some extent, respect embedded socio-cultural dynamics, innovate around redundant and archaic governance and institutional structures, and respond to emergent climate-induced risks (such as changing precipitation and temperature patterns).
This report thus summarises key findings from the Regional Diagnostic Studies (RDS) for South Asia. It discusses the socio-economic and biophysical context in India and the sub-regions (Chapter 2) and identifies major gaps in the existing literature in areas of climate science, vulnerability and adaptation in (Chapters 3, 4 and 5 respectively). It also draws on key informant interviews (KIIs) with multiple stakeholders to enrich our understanding of research gaps and key dialogues in the climate adaptation discourse (Annexe 1.2). By doing so, it will inform forthcoming research in the Regional Research Programme (RRP) phase.
Climate change is expected to disproportionately affect agriculture; however, there is limited information on smallholder farmers ‘ overall vulnerability and adaptation needs. This paper estimates the impact of climatic shocks on the household agricultural income and subsequently, on farmers ‘ adaptation strategies. Relying on data from a survey conducted in several communities in Bangladesh in 2011 and based on an IV probit approach, the results show that a one percentage point climate induced decline in agricultural income pushes households to adapt by almost 3 percentage points.
However, certain strategies are too costly and cannot be afforded in bad times. For those strategies, we provide evidence of barriers that constrain the development and deployment of adaptive measures, noticeably access to electricity and wealth.