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This meta-synthesis of national climate change adaptation plans, policies and processes spans 12 countries at various stages of adaptation planning and implementation, in three priority CCAFS regions: West Africa (Burkina Faso, Ghana, Mali, Niger, Senegal), East Africa (Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda) and South Asia (Bangladesh, India, Nepal). The national adaptation plan (NAP) process was established in the Cancú Adaptation Framework by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) to help facilitate effective medium- and long-term adaptation planning and implementation in developing countries, and in particular Least Developed Countries (LDCs). The scope of this review focused primarily on climate adaptation in the agriculture sector, but also included consideration of related sectors, such as water, forests and land use.
How can we further capitalise on trade measures’ ability to address climate change mitigation? Is the overall impact of current climate response measures trade restrictive? Or, do these measures manage to achieve both environmental and economic goals? How can current governance of climate and trade be expanded or amended to make climate response measures more trade-friendly or to use trade more effectively toward achieving climate action goals? This paper explores these questions while putting forth several proposals for using trade tools to further progress toward climate change mitigation.
This article examines current adaptation strategies developed by local farmers against climate change effects in Kilombero District. Research questions guided the study include; what are the past and current climatic stresses? What are local farmers’ perception on climate change and response to the adverse climatic stresses? What are institutions and political structures influencing local farmer’s adaptive capacity? The study was carried out in Mpofu, Njage and Miwangani villages. Data were collected through participatory rural appraisal, key informant interviews, household questionnaire interviews and focus group discussions. Findings show that there is prevalence of climate stresses including; prolonged dry spells, unpredictable floods, pests and diseases. Due to these stresses farmers have developed local adaptation strategies which are farming and non-farming. Farming strategies were crop diversification for food and cash and shift of cropping calendar. Non-farming strategies include the use of forest products, livestock rearing, fishing, petty trade, casual labours and remittances. Inferential statistics show that family size, number of years the respondent lived in the village, trend of rainfall and temperature are the factors influencing adaptation strategies positively. The study recommends local adaptation strategies to be streamlined to relevant policies in order to enhance local farmers’ adaptive capacity and become helpful in facing both present and future climate change effects.
Some countries have decided to create or join climate initiatives running parallel to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The authors call these clubs. In conclusion they formulate what they call the ‘UNFCCC paradox’, arguing that it is highly unlikely that a ground-breaking multilateral climate agreement would be adopted outside the UNFCCC process. However such an agreement under the current format of the UNFCCC is likely to depend on initiatives occurring outside of its control.
This report is part of a series of country studies in Namibia, Tanzania and Zambia. Since November 2012, ODI and the African Climate Finance Hub have worked with government, private sector, and civil society stakeholders in Namibia, Zambia and Tanzania to understand these countries’ unique climate finance readiness needs.
The need to support processes that enhance the capacity of developing countries to access, allocate and spend climate finance is increasingly acknowledged by the international community. Several bilateral and multilateral initiatives have been launched to strengthen recipient country readiness to use climate finance effectively, and “readiness” activities are envisaged to be supported through the Green Climate Fund (GCF).
Greater attention to issues of national policy, planning, institutional arrangements and spending capacity, it is hoped, will not only ensure that climate change and development aspirations are well aligned, but also more effectively implemented through the ensuing activities funded.
China has witnessed growth in a wide range of renewable energy sectors over the past decade. But challenges remain including a continued reliance on coal and oil relied on for 90 per cent of the country’s energy needs. Air and water pollution are also an issue as well as an underdeveloped waste management sector. The report also cites underinvestment in research and development among other challenges. The report synthesizes studies in five sectors to gain an insight into China’s green economy transition.
As demand for food, land and fuel grows, this paper explores approaches, opportunities and challenges in moving farmers from a subsistence to a business basis. The authors seek to raise awareness of the benefits of landscape approaches among potential stakeholders in the agricultural and environmental sectors. They argue that international development donors should create funding mechanisms that stimulate the formation of broad partnerships that bring together the range of capabilities needed to address challenges at the landscape scale. For this change to take place biological as well as economic sustainability needs to be favoured. A sustainable farming community has farming as a respected profession where farmers can make a living which enables them to stay in the countryside rather than move to urban areas. The report argues that financial mechanisms, incentives and training are needed to connect them to markets and obtain a fair share of the value they create.
This report was prepared by the Indian government’s Ministry of Power, Central Electricity Authority. It was put together on the basis of discussions and inputs from Gujarat, Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu. It concludes that the variability of renewable sources of power can be addressed through improved forecasting techniques. When the percentage of renewable energy sources becomes significant, special attention needs to be paid to accurately forecast their output. India’s size is useful in balancing the variable output of renewable energy sources located in few states by integrating them into the national grid. It is expected that all the five electrical regions of India would be synchronously connected in 2014.
This report reviews the ‘Fast-Start Finance’ (FSF) contributions that 37 countries have reported to the UNFCCC. It draws on detailed case studies of the five largest contributors: Germany, Japan, Norway, the UK and the USA. These five countries delivered almost 80 per cent of reported FSF. They also provide a large share of development finance, including Official Development Assistance (ODA) and Other Official Flows (OOF).
Developed countries committed to provide US$ 30 billion in new and additional climate finance between 2010 and 2012 under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
This paper develops an approach under Work Package 4 (WP4) of the Strengthening Resilience in Volcanic Areas (STREVA) programme for analysing the institutional factors that shape collective action to reduce disaster risk.
The key messages include:
This publication reports on WWF’s forest and climate work between 2010 and 2013 which sought to develop models for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) that secure scalable forest ecosystem management while engaging those communities that live in and depend on forests in way improve their livelihoods. The report concludes that although valuable, REDD+ is not an end in itself but one tool to conserve biodiversity, reduce carbon emissions and combat climate change and although critical cannot exist in isolation.
This draft paper aims to highlight the existing funds and opportunities, to provide a clear understanding on how to have access to these climate finance flows, and to catalogue what is needed in terms of performance tracking. Firstly the major climate financing mechanisms and institutions that fund transport are presented, noting their orientation towards transport investments and an overview of how to gain access to funding. Second, the paper discusses the preconditions for accessing and receiving climate finance in the transport sector and the major challenges involved in this process. Lastly, the paper describes the challenges and best practices of measurement, reporting, and verification (MRV) of emissions impacts from policy action.
Using novel data on patents, trade of equipment goods, and foreign direct investments and insights from the economic literature, this paper seeks to lay out the state of knowledge on the role of innovation and the diffusion of technologies in the greening of global value chains as well as some of the main policy issues. A special emphasis is put on developing countries – distinguishing emerging economies and least-developed countries – and on climate-mitigation technologies. Emerging economies are already reasonably well integrated in the global economy. As a consequence, technologies flow in through the imports of capital goods and local investments by multinational enterprises owning technologies. Pushing further technology transfer requires strengthening intellectual property rights, lowering barriers to trade and investments and improving technological absorptive capacities. In contrast, their role in innovation is limited. Standard tools of innovation policy – public research and development, public support to private research and development, better access to finance - should develop. But studies also suggest that governments should introduce more stringent environmental policies with proper enforcement at home to go beyond the adoption of foreign technologies. The situation of least developed countries is very different: they do not import green technologies and low barriers to trade and foreign direct investment or strict intellectual property rights are unlikely to trigger technology transfer. In these countries, the focus should be on building technological capacities.
This paper contributes to the existing Netherlands Development Organisation efforts to promote pro-poor REDD+ and integrate these approaches into national and sub-national REDD+ decision making. Firstly it aims to evaluate the economic viability of REDD+ in two forested districts of Vietnam in Lam Dong province (Bao Lam and Cat Tien), with an emphasis on investigating how opportunity costs can help to identify the land-use options most relevant to poor actors there. Benefits and challenges associated with the use of opportunity cost estimation are also explored. There is a quantitative evaluation of 30-year net present values of future profits from alternative land uses using the World Agroforestry Center’s REDD Abacus model, along with field based cost data and land-use change estimates with associated changes in carbon stocks from 2000–2010. This is followed by a qualitative discussion of the implications for pro-poor REDD+.
All Indian States have started a process to develop individual action plans aligned with the National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) to plan for low carbon and climate resilient development in their respective states. This process has become the State Action Plans on Climate Change (SAPCC). Using Odisha (erstwhile Orissa) as a case study, this report develops some approaches and frameworks that could potentially be applicable to all states in order to analyse their proposed climate change activities and budgets.
This working paper is part of a series which discusses the effectiveness of international climate funds using a common analytical framework. It explores the effectiveness of the Global Environment Facility (GEF) by looking at the processes by which it spends money and the likely outcomes of delivered funding.;
As the demand for land intensifies, people and governments are facing increasing pressure on the access, management and governance of land and forests. Although there are policies, legislation and institutions to manage land resources nationally, this report argues that these tools have yet to collectively address the fundamental causes of land conflict and resource mismanagement. It states that a major reason for this failure is because the models do not adequately take account of the needs and knowledge of the people living in proximity to the forests that are being regulated. This report reflects analysis of the current situation of community forestry in the Asia–Pacific region. The study indicates that people will conserve biodiversity, reduce deforestation and manage forests sustainably when they derive regular benefits from them and when they are empowered to participate in decision-making processes regarding those forests.
This paper contains the highlights of an Indo-US Dialogue on Sustainability, hosted by the Observer Research Foundation in New Delhi on December 6-7, 2012. The dialogue focussed on market and civil society initiatives on sustainability. India has seen a significant rise in energy demand largely due to its economic growth over the last decade. The country’s renewable energy market relies heavily on incentives provided by government programmes. This paper outlines the potential of renewable energy in addressing India's energy supply and access; it identifies challenges and provides a discursive overview of the various market and policy instruments developed to scale up renewable energy generation.
This study tried to answer the central question: Can renewable energy technologies (RETs) be a triple win-win strategy to address mitigation – adaptation – development nexus, without or little trade off of development needs of people; therefore, can it be a foundation on which a climate resilient development path can be based on? The study looked at RETs related studies, both at national and international. Case studies were reviewed which showed RETs provide socio-economic and environmental benefits to people that contribute for adopting and ensuring better adaptation to climate change based on the local context.
This report argues that to feed the global population in 2050 the world will have to produce more food without significantly expanding the area of cultivated land and, because of competition between a greater number of water users, with less freshwater. These issues are likely to be compounded by climate change. The report concludes that to ensure agriculture and food security, good water management adaptation is needed but it cannot be done in isolation. The need for sustainable development is empathised. The report argues that depending on local contexts, needs, and interests there are opportunities for improving water management that help adaptation to climatic and other change, and simultaneously advance development. Building resilience brings benefits in adaptation, climatic variability management, diversification of livelihoods, and reduced risk.
The Pacific region is particularly vulnerable to climate change because of its unique geography and environment, the fragility of its economic structure, its distinctive demographics, and the interactions between these different factors. This study aims to estimate the range of potential economic impacts of climate change for specific sectors and for overall economies of the region under various emissions scenarios. There are three components:
1. Climate modelling, presents a high-resolution simulation of future climate over the Pacific region by dynamically downscaling global climate data using a regional climate model to generate locally relevant climate information.
2. Sector impact assessment, quantifies the potential sectoral impacts of climate change in the Pacific on agriculture, fisheries, tourism, coral reefs, and human health.
3. Economic impact assessment, employs an economic modelling framework that integrates a set of climate projections and physical impacts to provide estimates of the potential economic impact of climate change for a given area.
This report, targeted at development practitioners and national policy makers, argues that climate and disaster resilient development is essential to eliminating extreme poverty and achieving shared prosperity by 2030. Such development requires start-up costs which can pay in the long run. It recommends closer collaboration between the climate resilience and disaster risk management communities as disaster losses continue to rise. Also the incorporation of climate and disaster resilience into broader development processes. The conclusion is given that all key drivers, such as climate change and poverty, influence the risk of a weather event becoming a disaster and need to be managed collectively. Case studies are used throughout in order to illustrate promising approaches, lessons learned and remaining challenges.
This study assessed and evaluated the variation of the health burden in response to extreme weather events (of which climate change is a cause) that occurred in Thailand from 2006 to 2010. The health burden was assessed using disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost and deaths from injuries as its indicators. Most of the DALYs in Thailand were lost from floods (approximately 12,872). The authors recommend that future studies should aim to improve and systematize the database systems of agencies that collect health data events occurring due to extreme weather in Thailand, because these databases currently do not cover all of the affected health conditions assessed in studies, such as cause of injury, feature of injuries, and duration of the disability.
The amount of international climate finance approved to help developing countries address the impacts of climate change increased considerably between 2008 and 2012. Much of this funding has been mobilized as developed countries seek to meet commitments to provide scaled-up finance to developing countries under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Developing country governments have increased their own spending to adapt to climate change and enhance resilience, recognizing the risks that climate change already poses to their people and economies. But how much finance is actually available within developing countries? How it is used? Who receives the money? Is it reaching the local level? And are the needs of the poorest and most vulnerable being met? These are the questions that the Adaptation Finance Accountability Initiative (AFAI) tries to answer by analyzing adaptation finance flows in Nepal, the Philippines, Uganda, and Zambia.
Participatory carbon monitoring (PCM) is presented here as an approach to improve the vertical and horizontal institutional integration of different stakeholders for carbon accounting within a country’s national REDD+ programme. This document aims to guide national stakeholders involved in the REDD+ readiness process in understanding: a) what a PCM approach is, and what are potential and limitations involved (Section 1); and b) how to organise stakeholders and operationalize carbon accounting within a PCM approach for national REDD+ programmes (Section 2). PCM applications for REDD+ other than carbon accounting safeguard compliance; low-emissions development planning; benefit sharing; and monitoring REDD+ policies and measures - are also introduced but not elaborated on in this document.
The document describes roles and key functional tasks for a PCM approach to four distinct stakeholder groups: national government institutions, subnational government institutions, local stakeholders (including local communities), and non-government institutions and private sector.
Ensuring that climate finance is used effectively will help to maximise its impact. The effectiveness of climate finance can be defined as the extent to which an activity attains its stated aims. These aims can vary, depending on the source of climate finance and how it is channelled. There are therefore different views on what 'effective' climate finance is, as well as on how this effectiveness can be assessed. This paper explores how different communities view climate finance effectiveness; the policies or institutional pre-conditions that facilitate effectiveness; and how effectiveness is currently monitored and evaluated. The paper concludes by discussing the conflicts and trade-offs encountered in assessing effectiveness and a possible way forward in balancing multiple views and priorities.
This pilot of the Environment and Gender Index aims to measure country performance at the intersection of gender, environment, and sustainable development. Socially constructed determinants can contribute to women’s disempowerment. For example: insecure land and tenure rights; obstructed access to natural resource assets; limited opportunities for participating in decision-making; lack of access to markets, capital, training, and technologies; and the double burden of responsibilities inside and outside the household. This results in a lost opportunity for sustainable development.
Project Leaf (Law Enforcement Assistance for Forests) was launched on 5 June, 2012 – on World Environment Day. It is an initiative to counter various aspects of forest crime, including corruption, illegal logging and timber trafficking. The project is a consortium led by Interpol and the United Nations Environment Programme, intended to provide a coordinated global response to organised and transnational forest sector crime. Effective forest law enforcement in countries that implement REDD+ schemes is crucial to the success of REDD+. By involving actors aiming to prevent forest crime and corruption, Project Leaf hopes to generate an improved governance platform to aid country implementation of REDD+. Project Leaf counts on development donors for financial and operational support.
This report is the output of a review and consultation on responsible corporate engagement in climate policy, undertaken by the UN Global Compact in cooperation with UNEP, UNFCCC, WRI, CDP, WWF, Ceres and The Climate Group. It sets guidelines for why and how companies can provide constructive influences on public policy. The report is designed to help companies inform and accelerate the policies most urgently needed to support a stable global economy. It is also designed to help businesses engage in the political progress on reducing carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions, and adapt to disruptions in the global climate system. Five core elements of responsible policy engagement in climate policy are presented: legitimacy, opportunity, consistency, accountability, and transparency. These translate to three practical actions responsible companies can undertake around climate policy, which are: identify, align, report.
This research was prompted by a growing consensus on the changing nature of humanitarian emergencies towards increasingly complex drivers and inter-connected circumstances as opposed to single shocks. The research was carried out during 2012 by 33 researchers through four research hubs across southern Africa. The authors conclude that the dramatic changes to the region’s risk profile in the past two decades call for new thinking, approaches and partnerships to accommodate a wider diversity of interlinked and fast-paced threats. The research team identified six broad clusters of potential threats with implications for humanitarian action, but stress that they should only be seen as indicative, given the highly dynamic risk profile of the region. The clusters are: environmental threats, aggregate (economic) threats, socio-political shocks, public health threats, aid shocks, compound and composite threats.
This paper features five case studies of rural development projects which represent a variety of situations in which environmental or climate-related problems pose a challenge to human development. The projects are based in Kenya, Turkey, Viet Nam, Bangladesh and Bolivia. It is argued that it is possible to quantify the benefits that arise from adaptation investments in economic and financial terms. The methodologies applied to the case studies look at factors such as avoided damages from investments in climate change adaptation, increased production functions as a result of sustainable intensification or diversification, net incremental income for smallholder farmers and employment gains. They examine a range of adaptation activities that are geared to reduce risks from specific climate hazards. It is argued that climate adaptation is proving its effectiveness in equipping smallholder farmers with the tools and practices they need to carry on their livelihoods in a future with many uncertainties.
The driver behind this paper is the need to track climate change adaptation progress and lack of ability to do this thanks to the complex nature of adaptation and the absence of measurable outcomes or indicators by which to judge if and how adaptation is occurring. The authors developed a typology of approaches by which climate change adaptation can be tracked globally at a national level. They conclude that major challenges lie in operationalising approaches, including an absence of systematically collected data on adaptation actions and outcomes, underlying difficulties of defining what constitutes ‘adaptation’, and a disconnect between the timescale over which adaptation plays out and the practical need for evaluation to inform policy. Given the development of new adaptation funding streams, the paper argues that it is imperative that tools for monitoring progress are developed and validated for identifying trends and gaps in adaptation response.
Three case studies are presented in this document from Nepal, Mali and Colombia. The aim is to provide lessons and recommendations on gender mainstreaming and climate change. Examples are provided to aid decision-makers in new efforts to integrate gender considerations into public and private climate mitigation projects and financing. To date, prevailing approaches to reducing emissions have prioritized scientific and technological measures, often at the expense of social and behavioural considerations. Most of the mitigation projects and funds so far have supported large-scale energy infrastructure and industrial efficiency programs, which are often viewed as mitigation projects with little connection to gender equality or other social issues. The report concludes that, as the understanding of the relevance of gender issues increases, more rigorous methodology and systematic data collection is needed to support climate finance decision-makers in integrating gender equality into mitigation projects.
REDD+ is an emerging international climate policy mechanism which is being designed to deliver climate change mitigation benefits from tropical forests. REDD+ would make carbon payments to developing countries that reduce greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation below internationally agreed reference levels. Developing countries would be responsible for designing their own policies to achieve these emission reductions.
This paper concludes that it may be possible to shift a portion of REDD+ funding away from carbon payments and towards biodiversity payments and obtain both more biodiversity benefits and more climate benefits.
The key messages of this report are:
This report is part of a series from Climate Asia, worldwide study of people’s everyday experience of climate change in seven Asian countries – Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Nepal, Pakistan and Vietnam. The project surveyed 33,500 people across the seven countries, including 4,985 households in Indonesia where research was conducted from February to October 2012. Climate Asia also conducted 16 focus groups with men and women from different social backgrounds across seven locations in Indonesia; 22 interviews with key experts and opinion-formers from government, civil society, business and academia; and community assessments with seven communities vulnerable to changes in climate.
A nationally representative picture is presented of how different groups of people in Indonesia live and deal with change. This includes their perception of changes in climate, values, livelihoods, use of food, water and energy, family life, worries, what they watch and listen to, whom they most trust, what they hope for in the future, and the environmental changes they have noticed or deal with already.
Produced by International Rivers, an international NGO working to protect rivers and defend the rights of communities that depend on them, this guidebook is aimed at those working in and with riverine communities, with a particular focus on river resources and large infrastructure projects such as dams. The guidebook summarises the ways in which climate change is and will impact rivers, and provides some tools which are hoped to be useful in the building of climate resilience of riverine communities, and the rivers they depend on. It consists of several chapters, beginning with an introduction concerning why rivers are so important. Background is then provided on a range of river-related climate change threats, including precipitation and temperature, floods, glacial lake outbursts, droughts, and hydroelectric projects, in order for users to understand the associated risks. Chapters three, four, and five lay out the recommendations and resources necessary to help users assess, address, and adapt to a world of changing climate. Numerous case studies are highlighted, illustrating a number of options available, such as solar, biomass, and micro-electric alternatives to hydroelectric dam projects.
The guidebook concludes by summing up the recommendations of these last three chapters under the aforementioned headings:
The 2008 global food crisis caught everyone by surprise, since it emerged from a complex web of factors in a way that is exceedingly difficult to predict. This issue brief by the World Resources Institute reviews the myriad of influences that brought about the food crisis, and how climate variability acted as an important trigger. It analyses the food crisis through a complexity perspective, and reviews coping strategies and adaptive capacities of vulnerable groups, before using this research to recommend a set of policy recommendations.
The paper begins by charting the chain of events that led to the 2008 food crisis through multiple scales, highlighting how global influences filter down to the local level in a cascade effect. There is then an examination of the ways in which households are impacted, including migration and poverty dynamics. Individual and collective outcomes, adaptation strategies, the role of safety nets, risk governance, and fragile states are also discussed.
The authors draw four categories of policy conclusions from the analysis:
UNFCCC technical paper on existing institutional arrangements regarding climate change related loss and damage. This technical paper has been produced by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to review existing institutional arrangements, both within and outside the Convention, and at the transboundary, regional and global levels, that focus on loss and damage (LAD) related to climate change.
The paper begins by outlining the mandate, objective, methodology, scope, and structure of the study, before providing a summary of general features and emerging trends. The paper then presents a summary of the regional coverage and gaps in existing institutional arrangements, including:
The paper concludes by highlighting a number of trends that emerge from this preliminary analysis, including that: all regions predominantly focus on LAD associated with extreme weather events rather than slow onset events; no institutional arrangements were identified that concern non-economic LAD; relatively fewer arrangements are in place to deal with transboundary LAD; institutionalised provisions for financial support addressing LAD are mostly centralised at the global level; and coordination and collaboration between global and regional arrangements is currently insufficient. Despite this, the large number of institutional arrangements provide a good basis and further opportunities for addressing LAD. Further stocktaking of existing mandates of arrangements may further assist in understanding the gaps and opportunities in ways that will increase synergy and coherence, and avoid duplication of efforts.
The Chinyanja Triangle is a trans-boundary, landlocked region that straddles Southern and Central Malawi, Tete Province of Mozambique and Eastern Province of Zambia. This document covers a three-year project to examine the benefits of integrating aquaculture and small scale irrigation by identifying improved water allocation and management strategies under current and future climate change scenarios.
In Garissa County, the impacts of climate change are already being felt by communities, who are seeking ways to adapt to the changes and to build resilient livelihoods. These changes are combined with other environmental, economic and political factors to create a situation of increasing vulnerability for poor and marginalized households. Women are particularly effected as they face additional social, cultural and political constraints to resource access and adaptive decision-making.
The Adaptation Learning Program for Africa (ALP) conducted participatory research and analysis on climate change vulnerability and adaptive capacity with six communities in Garissa County in 2011. Based on this analysis, this document explores the impacts of climate change on livelihoods in pastoral and agro-pastoral households, using the villages of Shant’abaq and Kone to illustrate the realities of climate change in vulnerable communities. It also aims to highlight the existing adaptive capacity within these communities and the issues that constrain people’s ability to put this capacity into action.
Conclusions and recommendations include:
(Adapted from source)
Climate Asia is the world’s largest study of people’s everyday experience of climate change. The project surveyed 33,500 people across seven Asian countries. In Vietnam, research was conducted from April 2012 to August 2012. It included a nationally representative survey of 3,486 households, 16 focus groups across six locations in the country and an evaluation of current and past communication on these subjects. In addition, a workshop with experts and opinion formers from media, business and civil society was held in Hanoi and practitioners and media experts were interviewed.
Questions explored by the study include: How do people in Vietnam live with climate change now? How will its impacts shape their future, and how will they, in turn, shape their environment? What are the most effective ways to support people to adapt to climate change, and how best can the media, governments, organisations and businesses communicate with them?
(Adapted from source)
This technical paper provides a literature review and analysis of best practices and available tools for: the use of indigenous and traditional knowledge and practices for adaptation; and the application of gender-sensitive approaches and tools for understanding and assessing impacts, vulnerability and adaptation to climate change.
(Adapted from source)
The government of Pakistan's 2011 Framework for Economic Growth seeks to place Pakistan on a sustained high economic growth path of 7 per cent per year through measures to reduce the cost of doing business, improve the investment climate, and strengthen institutions. According to the report, the present patterns in transport and trade logistics, an important part of the country’s economy, generate inefficiencies that are costing Pakistan's economy roughly 4-6 per cent of GDP per year. This report examines the poverty, social, and environmental aspects associated with trade and transport sector reforms aimed at increasing the freight transport sector's productivity to meet the Framework's goals.
This document is generally targeted at professionals, such as researchers, consultants, policy analysts and sectoral planners who have some prior knowledge on climate risk assessment and adaptation. It responds to the challenge of providing clear technical guidance that combines robust science with explicit consideration of user needs at local, national and international levels. It updates existing guidance for assessing climate change vulnerability, impacts and adaptation, covering the range of available approaches, methods and tools.
The guidance is structured along a five-stage iterative adaptation learning cycle:
1) Identifying adaptation needs
2) Identifying adaptation options
3) Appraising adaptation options
4) Planning and implementing adaptation actions
5) Monitoring and evaluation of adaptation
India’s embrace of ‘green growth’ is linked to its membership of the G-20 group, which had adopted the concept as a key priority at the Seoul G-20 Leaders’ Summit in 2010. India had historically interpreted carbon emission controls as an unfair burden on its fossil fuel-fired quest for poverty reduction through economic growth, but the idea of green growth has changed the terms of the debate.
As a large and powerful member of the G-20, India’s primary concern is to be a responsible partner of the group. This calls for the whole-hearted adoption of the concept of green growth. However, as a country characterised by pervasive poverty, India’s concern is to ensure that the adoption of the concept does not compromise its key objective of poverty reduction.
This paper explores how the idea of green growth is being interpreted, implemented and contested in India by various stakeholders. The author shows that India’s policy documents consistently express two specific concerns over adopting green growth policies. The first is that India may have to ‘sacrifice’ a significant proportion of its GDP growth if it takes a green path.The second concern over choosing a green path to growth reiterated in many of India’s economic policy documents is that there is no commitment to additional funding from developed nations.
This report is intended to provide evidence that will help underpin policy and operational discussions on loss and damage, particularly around the nineteenth Conference of Parties (COP19) in Warsaw and consequently COP21 in Paris.
For this report, the research team used the following working definition of loss and damage, which includes the inability to respond adequately to climate stressors and the costs and adverse effects associated with the adaptation and coping measures themselves: ‘Loss and damage refers to negative effects of climate variability and climate change that people have not been able to cope with or adapt to.’
Nine case studies were conducted while attempting to answer the research question: ‘How does the impact of [climate stressor] on [societal impact] lead to loss and damage among households in [location]?’
This Overseas Development Institute report argues that it is time to 'change the game' on fossil fuel subsidies in order to promote inclusive and green growth. It states that fossil fuel subsidies undermine international efforts to avert dangerous climate change and represent a drain on national budgets. It also questions the benefits for those living in poverty and argue that phasing out fossil fuel subsides would eliminate the perverse incentives that drive up carbon emissions, create price signals for investment in a low carbon transition and reduce pressure on public finances. The report calls for the subsidies to be phased out by 2020 for G20 countries and globally by 2025.
This report deals with the challenge of how to consistently estimate, monitor and evaluate the actual outcomes of their adaptation activities. Although many different approaches for various adaptation project types and sectors have been applied, there is yet to be a standardised set of indicators covering most activities. This would allow project proposals to be compared before implementation and enable lessons to be drawn from project implementation.
A framework is proposed which consists of two indicators that allow the total value of an adaptation project to be assessed: saved wealth covers the monetary value of public infrastructure, private property and income loss. Saved health assesses avoided disease, disability and life loss. These indicators are applied to the GIZ project ‘Management of Natural Resources in the Coastal Zone of Soc Trang’ (MNRCZ) in Viet Nam as a case study. Among the study results is that the finding that wealth benefits are five times higher for a mangrove project than for a dyke upgrade.
Co-ordination among the BRICS countries concerning the green economy agenda within the G-20 is almost nonexistent. Nevertheless, Brazilian authorities seek to maintain some co-ordination with the other BRICS members, even if the main purpose is to avoid the adoption of those commitments and mandates that can potentially cause discomfort to some of them.
The paper discusses the impact of the green growth agenda on the Brazilian economy, domestic policies, the strategies related to the country’s participation in the G-20 and Brazil’s articulations with the other BRICS members. The paper describes the evolution of the debate on sustainable development and the green economy in Brazil, and the
main policy trade-offs as perceived by the policymakers and stakeholders. It also includes a brief presentation of the main features of domestic policies related to the green growth agenda, with an emphasis on industrial and energy policies.
The authors conclude that Brazilian challenges do not arise from a shortage of funds. They come from the priorities directing domestic industrial policies, which do not focus on green economy projects,
but rather on the expansion of the domestic industrial base, with lax criteria for green innovation and energy efficiency conditionalities for accessing fiscal and credit benefits.
An abundance of natural resources creates an unequivocal advantage for Brazil in the green economy agenda vis-à-vis its partners in the BRICS coalition, but this advantage is being watered down by the domestic preference for development policies. Domestic preferences help to explain why Brazil maintains its alliances with developing countries that face more even more difficulties with respect to cleaning their energy matrixes or adopting policy reforms towards a green economy.