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Juvenile delinquency is increasing in almost every country in Latin America—a region where citizen security is the main concern. Youth crime is at the forefront of regional social challenges: Scholars, activists and legislators are all debating both causes and potential solutions to this problem.
This report tackles the causes of why an increasing number of youths in the region are engaging in criminal activities, by presenting evidence that this phenomenon could be driven by a change in the incentives to commit crime, rather than created as a result of a generation of youths who differ inherently from its predecessors. In order to do so, this report develops a new dynamic framework with which to analyze juvenile crime as a rational choice in which forwardlooking youths decide between legal and criminal activities, and their skills are shaped by their past and present choices. In order to quantify the consequences of each decision, this analysis recognizes the effects of on-the-job training, on-the-crime training, the school of crime in correctional facilities and the social stigmatization of conviction.
This meta-synthesis of national climate change adaptation plans, policies and processes spans 12 countries at various stages of adaptation planning and implementation, in three priority CCAFS regions: West Africa (Burkina Faso, Ghana, Mali, Niger, Senegal), East Africa (Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda) and South Asia (Bangladesh, India, Nepal). The national adaptation plan (NAP) process was established in the Cancú Adaptation Framework by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) to help facilitate effective medium- and long-term adaptation planning and implementation in developing countries, and in particular Least Developed Countries (LDCs). The scope of this review focused primarily on climate adaptation in the agriculture sector, but also included consideration of related sectors, such as water, forests and land use.
An increasingly significant trend in the global HIV epidemic is the growing number of people aged 50 years and older, who are living with HIV. Very few HIV strategies in low-and middle-income countries currently address this previously hidden dimension of the HIV epidemic, yet populations 50 years and older hold important implications for HIV responses.
This special supplement to the UNAIDS report on the global AIDS epidemic 2013, highlights that:
The report conlcudes that as people aged 50 years and over are a growing part of the HIV epidemic, this fact requires new responses. Many people with HIV are living longer, more active lives thanks to the expansion of effective antiretroviral treatment. Fewer younger people aged 15-49 years are newly acquiring HIV, which means that people aged 50 and over are a growing HIV demographic. People in this age group share many of the HIV risk behaviours seen among younger people.
HIV responses therefore need to account for this important demographic by reflecting risks and trends and providing appropriate prevention, testing and treatment services. HIV services for people aged 50 or over would be helpfully integrated with non-communicable disease screening and treatment as well as other age-appropriate health services. These changes in the HIV epidemic are a reminder that it defies a single, universal approach and continues to demand solid knowledge and focused responses
How can we further capitalise on trade measures’ ability to address climate change mitigation? Is the overall impact of current climate response measures trade restrictive? Or, do these measures manage to achieve both environmental and economic goals? How can current governance of climate and trade be expanded or amended to make climate response measures more trade-friendly or to use trade more effectively toward achieving climate action goals? This paper explores these questions while putting forth several proposals for using trade tools to further progress toward climate change mitigation.
This article examines current adaptation strategies developed by local farmers against climate change effects in Kilombero District. Research questions guided the study include; what are the past and current climatic stresses? What are local farmers’ perception on climate change and response to the adverse climatic stresses? What are institutions and political structures influencing local farmer’s adaptive capacity? The study was carried out in Mpofu, Njage and Miwangani villages. Data were collected through participatory rural appraisal, key informant interviews, household questionnaire interviews and focus group discussions. Findings show that there is prevalence of climate stresses including; prolonged dry spells, unpredictable floods, pests and diseases. Due to these stresses farmers have developed local adaptation strategies which are farming and non-farming. Farming strategies were crop diversification for food and cash and shift of cropping calendar. Non-farming strategies include the use of forest products, livestock rearing, fishing, petty trade, casual labours and remittances. Inferential statistics show that family size, number of years the respondent lived in the village, trend of rainfall and temperature are the factors influencing adaptation strategies positively. The study recommends local adaptation strategies to be streamlined to relevant policies in order to enhance local farmers’ adaptive capacity and become helpful in facing both present and future climate change effects.
Some countries have decided to create or join climate initiatives running parallel to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The authors call these clubs. In conclusion they formulate what they call the ‘UNFCCC paradox’, arguing that it is highly unlikely that a ground-breaking multilateral climate agreement would be adopted outside the UNFCCC process. However such an agreement under the current format of the UNFCCC is likely to depend on initiatives occurring outside of its control.
This report is part of a series of country studies in Namibia, Tanzania and Zambia. Since November 2012, ODI and the African Climate Finance Hub have worked with government, private sector, and civil society stakeholders in Namibia, Zambia and Tanzania to understand these countries’ unique climate finance readiness needs.
The need to support processes that enhance the capacity of developing countries to access, allocate and spend climate finance is increasingly acknowledged by the international community. Several bilateral and multilateral initiatives have been launched to strengthen recipient country readiness to use climate finance effectively, and “readiness” activities are envisaged to be supported through the Green Climate Fund (GCF).
Greater attention to issues of national policy, planning, institutional arrangements and spending capacity, it is hoped, will not only ensure that climate change and development aspirations are well aligned, but also more effectively implemented through the ensuing activities funded.
Gridlock in the Doha round of international trade negotiations in the WTO since 2001 has led developing countries to pursue different strategies to boost trade and investment among various partners. One of these mechanisms is the India-Brazil-South Africa (IBSA) forum created in 2003, which emerged in a context of the rise of emerging powers on the global scene and fits in their respective strategies of assertion and gaining status as global powers beyond their regions.
The IBSA forum has often been criticised for not delivering results and being rendered redundant by the rise of similar groupings like the Brazil-Russia-India-China-South Africa (BRICS) forum. This paper questions the strategic aims of these southern-led cooperation mechanisms by looking at the forum’s activities related to the increase of south-south cooperation.
The author argues that beyond publicly stated aim of promoting south-south cooperation, the IBSA forum allows its members to pursue three underlying strategic aims:
China has witnessed growth in a wide range of renewable energy sectors over the past decade. But challenges remain including a continued reliance on coal and oil relied on for 90 per cent of the country’s energy needs. Air and water pollution are also an issue as well as an underdeveloped waste management sector. The report also cites underinvestment in research and development among other challenges. The report synthesizes studies in five sectors to gain an insight into China’s green economy transition.
A key challenge in addressing the needs of older women and men living with and affected by HIV has long been the exclusion of people aged 50 and over in HIV monitoring and reporting.
This paper explores how data on HIV is collected, analysed and reported, and the challenges arising for older women and men as a result. It highlights the risks and implications of HIV for the older age group and recommends how to ensure that data includes people aged 50 and over.
A review of the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) template in early 2014 will provide a window of opportunity for a discussion of the implications of including older women and men in the surveys. Through joint effort, solutions to the challenges of expanding surveys can be reached, allowing for the inclusion of older women and men in future DHS and AIDS Indicator Surveys (AIS). The ageing of HIV is a key challenge in this fourth decade of the epidemic. The collection of data on older women and men is, therefore, the first step in the provision of a comprehensive and appropriate HIV response.
As demand for food, land and fuel grows, this paper explores approaches, opportunities and challenges in moving farmers from a subsistence to a business basis. The authors seek to raise awareness of the benefits of landscape approaches among potential stakeholders in the agricultural and environmental sectors. They argue that international development donors should create funding mechanisms that stimulate the formation of broad partnerships that bring together the range of capabilities needed to address challenges at the landscape scale. For this change to take place biological as well as economic sustainability needs to be favoured. A sustainable farming community has farming as a respected profession where farmers can make a living which enables them to stay in the countryside rather than move to urban areas. The report argues that financial mechanisms, incentives and training are needed to connect them to markets and obtain a fair share of the value they create.
This report was prepared by the Indian government’s Ministry of Power, Central Electricity Authority. It was put together on the basis of discussions and inputs from Gujarat, Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu. It concludes that the variability of renewable sources of power can be addressed through improved forecasting techniques. When the percentage of renewable energy sources becomes significant, special attention needs to be paid to accurately forecast their output. India’s size is useful in balancing the variable output of renewable energy sources located in few states by integrating them into the national grid. It is expected that all the five electrical regions of India would be synchronously connected in 2014.
This report reviews the ‘Fast-Start Finance’ (FSF) contributions that 37 countries have reported to the UNFCCC. It draws on detailed case studies of the five largest contributors: Germany, Japan, Norway, the UK and the USA. These five countries delivered almost 80 per cent of reported FSF. They also provide a large share of development finance, including Official Development Assistance (ODA) and Other Official Flows (OOF).
Developed countries committed to provide US$ 30 billion in new and additional climate finance between 2010 and 2012 under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
This paper develops an approach under Work Package 4 (WP4) of the Strengthening Resilience in Volcanic Areas (STREVA) programme for analysing the institutional factors that shape collective action to reduce disaster risk.
The key messages include:
This publication reports on WWF’s forest and climate work between 2010 and 2013 which sought to develop models for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) that secure scalable forest ecosystem management while engaging those communities that live in and depend on forests in way improve their livelihoods. The report concludes that although valuable, REDD+ is not an end in itself but one tool to conserve biodiversity, reduce carbon emissions and combat climate change and although critical cannot exist in isolation.
This draft paper aims to highlight the existing funds and opportunities, to provide a clear understanding on how to have access to these climate finance flows, and to catalogue what is needed in terms of performance tracking. Firstly the major climate financing mechanisms and institutions that fund transport are presented, noting their orientation towards transport investments and an overview of how to gain access to funding. Second, the paper discusses the preconditions for accessing and receiving climate finance in the transport sector and the major challenges involved in this process. Lastly, the paper describes the challenges and best practices of measurement, reporting, and verification (MRV) of emissions impacts from policy action.
Using novel data on patents, trade of equipment goods, and foreign direct investments and insights from the economic literature, this paper seeks to lay out the state of knowledge on the role of innovation and the diffusion of technologies in the greening of global value chains as well as some of the main policy issues. A special emphasis is put on developing countries – distinguishing emerging economies and least-developed countries – and on climate-mitigation technologies. Emerging economies are already reasonably well integrated in the global economy. As a consequence, technologies flow in through the imports of capital goods and local investments by multinational enterprises owning technologies. Pushing further technology transfer requires strengthening intellectual property rights, lowering barriers to trade and investments and improving technological absorptive capacities. In contrast, their role in innovation is limited. Standard tools of innovation policy – public research and development, public support to private research and development, better access to finance - should develop. But studies also suggest that governments should introduce more stringent environmental policies with proper enforcement at home to go beyond the adoption of foreign technologies. The situation of least developed countries is very different: they do not import green technologies and low barriers to trade and foreign direct investment or strict intellectual property rights are unlikely to trigger technology transfer. In these countries, the focus should be on building technological capacities.
This paper contributes to the existing Netherlands Development Organisation efforts to promote pro-poor REDD+ and integrate these approaches into national and sub-national REDD+ decision making. Firstly it aims to evaluate the economic viability of REDD+ in two forested districts of Vietnam in Lam Dong province (Bao Lam and Cat Tien), with an emphasis on investigating how opportunity costs can help to identify the land-use options most relevant to poor actors there. Benefits and challenges associated with the use of opportunity cost estimation are also explored. There is a quantitative evaluation of 30-year net present values of future profits from alternative land uses using the World Agroforestry Center’s REDD Abacus model, along with field based cost data and land-use change estimates with associated changes in carbon stocks from 2000–2010. This is followed by a qualitative discussion of the implications for pro-poor REDD+.
This briefing from the Economic and Social Research Foundation (ESRF) in Tanzania shares the key points from a TAKNET facilitated consultation
to discuss how research use can contribute to evidence based policy and practice.
The question addressed include:
In order the bridge research to policy gaps in Tanzania the briefing suggest the following be taken into account:
Clashes over the terms of mineral contracts have become a political lightning rod in many resource-rich countries. A series of bitter disputes in recent years has unsettled investors and global markets. These disputes call attention to the fragile and complex relationship between companies and their host governments that characterizes the extractives sector.
Public anticipation of the benefits of extractives projects is rising in many countries, with producer governments asserting greater control over their mineral endowments. But these expectations come at a time when the operational and political context for mineral investments is shifting across the world, raising questions about the long-term future of the extractives sector, especially in developing countries.
This paper asserts that the relationship between host country and company in the extractives sector will remain contentious. In many parts of the world conflicts are set to escalate. Future disputes, the authors conclude, have significant ramifications not only for the economic and political stability of the countries concerned but also for companies’ assets and reputations.
This paper identifies the need to strengthen capacity in the nutrition in emergencies sector and goes on to develop a competency based framework for greater clarity on the role of emergency nutritionists and the skills they require. Competency frameworks are an important tool for human resource development and have been developed for several other humanitarian sectors.
Through reviews of existing competency frameworks and interviews, competencies were identified and categorised and behavioural indicators developed to produce a technical competency framework for practitioners in nutrition in emergencies.
This paper explores the latest evidence on the relationships between agriculture and nutrition in food-insecure regions. First, it summarises the levels and consequences of undernutrition. Second, it reviews some contextual factors that might affect the relationship between agriculture and nutrition. Third, it reviews the state of the art knowledge on the links between agriculture and nutrition, drawing on recent reviews and studies. Fourth, it reviews the key research questions that need to be addressed and suggests some methods for answering them. Finally, the paper concludes with some implications for the AgriDiet project.
All Indian States have started a process to develop individual action plans aligned with the National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) to plan for low carbon and climate resilient development in their respective states. This process has become the State Action Plans on Climate Change (SAPCC). Using Odisha (erstwhile Orissa) as a case study, this report develops some approaches and frameworks that could potentially be applicable to all states in order to analyse their proposed climate change activities and budgets.
Recent evidence on malnutrition and poverty raise important questions on the role of food assistance policies and programs. In this review article, we examine evidence on the economic and nutritional impacts of international food assistance programs (FAPs) and policies. The returns on investments in FAPs are, on average, high but depend considerably on the targeting and cost structures as well as on food quality and role of complementary activities. We disaggregate findings into four classes of recipients. Returns to FAPs are highest for children under two. But, FAPs oriented towards early childhood interventions are less well funded than are interventions aimed at school-age children or at the broader, largely adult population even though available evidence indicates that these latter classes of interventions offer considerably lower average returns in economic, health, and nutrition terms. Nonetheless, FAP effectiveness in achieving any of several objectives varies with a range of key factors, including targeting, additionality, seasonality, timeliness, incentive effects, social acceptability and political economy considerations.
Developing country food systems have changed dramatically since the Green Revolution period. At the same time, malnutrition still represents a challenge and is now understood to encompass the three simultaneous dimensions of undernourishment, micronutrient deficiencies, and over-nutrition manifest in overweight and obesity. These changes in food systems and in the understanding of the global malnutrition challenge necessitate fresh thinking about food systems-based strategies to reduce malnutrition. This paper introduces a special section that offers such new perspectives. We discuss trends with respect to indicators of the triple burden of malnutrition to understand the extent of global malnutrition challenges and then relate those to food systems transformation in developing countries.
This working paper is part of a series which discusses the effectiveness of international climate funds using a common analytical framework. It explores the effectiveness of the Global Environment Facility (GEF) by looking at the processes by which it spends money and the likely outcomes of delivered funding.;
Micronutrients are defined as substances in foods that are essential for human health and are required in small amounts. They include all of the known vitamins and essential trace minerals. Micronutrient mal-nutrition affects between a third and a half of the global population. It causes untold human suffering and levies huge costs on society in terms of unrealized human potential and lost economic productivity. The goal of this paper is to identify deficiencies in the food system that lead to micronutrient malnutrition and explore and evaluate strategies for its prevention. We examine the impact of agricultural practices on micronutrients in the food supply, including cropping systems, soil fertility and animal agriculture. We then discuss the potential of biofortification – i.e. increasing the concentration of micronutrients in staple food crops through conventional plant breeding or genetic engineering– as a means to reduce micronutrient deficiency. In addition, we discuss the impact of food losses and food waste on micronutrients in the food supply, and we explore successful strategies to preserve micronutrients from farm to plate, including food forti-fication. Our review of the literature sheds light on the advantages and limitations of alternative interventions to reduce micronutrient deficiencies along the supply chain. We end with recommendations for actions that will reduce the prevalence of micronutrient malnutrition.
As the demand for land intensifies, people and governments are facing increasing pressure on the access, management and governance of land and forests. Although there are policies, legislation and institutions to manage land resources nationally, this report argues that these tools have yet to collectively address the fundamental causes of land conflict and resource mismanagement. It states that a major reason for this failure is because the models do not adequately take account of the needs and knowledge of the people living in proximity to the forests that are being regulated. This report reflects analysis of the current situation of community forestry in the Asia–Pacific region. The study indicates that people will conserve biodiversity, reduce deforestation and manage forests sustainably when they derive regular benefits from them and when they are empowered to participate in decision-making processes regarding those forests.
This paper contains the highlights of an Indo-US Dialogue on Sustainability, hosted by the Observer Research Foundation in New Delhi on December 6-7, 2012. The dialogue focussed on market and civil society initiatives on sustainability. India has seen a significant rise in energy demand largely due to its economic growth over the last decade. The country’s renewable energy market relies heavily on incentives provided by government programmes. This paper outlines the potential of renewable energy in addressing India's energy supply and access; it identifies challenges and provides a discursive overview of the various market and policy instruments developed to scale up renewable energy generation.
This study tried to answer the central question: Can renewable energy technologies (RETs) be a triple win-win strategy to address mitigation – adaptation – development nexus, without or little trade off of development needs of people; therefore, can it be a foundation on which a climate resilient development path can be based on? The study looked at RETs related studies, both at national and international. Case studies were reviewed which showed RETs provide socio-economic and environmental benefits to people that contribute for adopting and ensuring better adaptation to climate change based on the local context.
This report argues that to feed the global population in 2050 the world will have to produce more food without significantly expanding the area of cultivated land and, because of competition between a greater number of water users, with less freshwater. These issues are likely to be compounded by climate change. The report concludes that to ensure agriculture and food security, good water management adaptation is needed but it cannot be done in isolation. The need for sustainable development is empathised. The report argues that depending on local contexts, needs, and interests there are opportunities for improving water management that help adaptation to climatic and other change, and simultaneously advance development. Building resilience brings benefits in adaptation, climatic variability management, diversification of livelihoods, and reduced risk.
The Pacific region is particularly vulnerable to climate change because of its unique geography and environment, the fragility of its economic structure, its distinctive demographics, and the interactions between these different factors. This study aims to estimate the range of potential economic impacts of climate change for specific sectors and for overall economies of the region under various emissions scenarios. There are three components:
1. Climate modelling, presents a high-resolution simulation of future climate over the Pacific region by dynamically downscaling global climate data using a regional climate model to generate locally relevant climate information.
2. Sector impact assessment, quantifies the potential sectoral impacts of climate change in the Pacific on agriculture, fisheries, tourism, coral reefs, and human health.
3. Economic impact assessment, employs an economic modelling framework that integrates a set of climate projections and physical impacts to provide estimates of the potential economic impact of climate change for a given area.
This report, targeted at development practitioners and national policy makers, argues that climate and disaster resilient development is essential to eliminating extreme poverty and achieving shared prosperity by 2030. Such development requires start-up costs which can pay in the long run. It recommends closer collaboration between the climate resilience and disaster risk management communities as disaster losses continue to rise. Also the incorporation of climate and disaster resilience into broader development processes. The conclusion is given that all key drivers, such as climate change and poverty, influence the risk of a weather event becoming a disaster and need to be managed collectively. Case studies are used throughout in order to illustrate promising approaches, lessons learned and remaining challenges.
This study assessed and evaluated the variation of the health burden in response to extreme weather events (of which climate change is a cause) that occurred in Thailand from 2006 to 2010. The health burden was assessed using disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost and deaths from injuries as its indicators. Most of the DALYs in Thailand were lost from floods (approximately 12,872). The authors recommend that future studies should aim to improve and systematize the database systems of agencies that collect health data events occurring due to extreme weather in Thailand, because these databases currently do not cover all of the affected health conditions assessed in studies, such as cause of injury, feature of injuries, and duration of the disability.
The amount of international climate finance approved to help developing countries address the impacts of climate change increased considerably between 2008 and 2012. Much of this funding has been mobilized as developed countries seek to meet commitments to provide scaled-up finance to developing countries under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Developing country governments have increased their own spending to adapt to climate change and enhance resilience, recognizing the risks that climate change already poses to their people and economies. But how much finance is actually available within developing countries? How it is used? Who receives the money? Is it reaching the local level? And are the needs of the poorest and most vulnerable being met? These are the questions that the Adaptation Finance Accountability Initiative (AFAI) tries to answer by analyzing adaptation finance flows in Nepal, the Philippines, Uganda, and Zambia.
Participatory carbon monitoring (PCM) is presented here as an approach to improve the vertical and horizontal institutional integration of different stakeholders for carbon accounting within a country’s national REDD+ programme. This document aims to guide national stakeholders involved in the REDD+ readiness process in understanding: a) what a PCM approach is, and what are potential and limitations involved (Section 1); and b) how to organise stakeholders and operationalize carbon accounting within a PCM approach for national REDD+ programmes (Section 2). PCM applications for REDD+ other than carbon accounting safeguard compliance; low-emissions development planning; benefit sharing; and monitoring REDD+ policies and measures - are also introduced but not elaborated on in this document.
The document describes roles and key functional tasks for a PCM approach to four distinct stakeholder groups: national government institutions, subnational government institutions, local stakeholders (including local communities), and non-government institutions and private sector.
Ensuring that climate finance is used effectively will help to maximise its impact. The effectiveness of climate finance can be defined as the extent to which an activity attains its stated aims. These aims can vary, depending on the source of climate finance and how it is channelled. There are therefore different views on what 'effective' climate finance is, as well as on how this effectiveness can be assessed. This paper explores how different communities view climate finance effectiveness; the policies or institutional pre-conditions that facilitate effectiveness; and how effectiveness is currently monitored and evaluated. The paper concludes by discussing the conflicts and trade-offs encountered in assessing effectiveness and a possible way forward in balancing multiple views and priorities.
This pilot of the Environment and Gender Index aims to measure country performance at the intersection of gender, environment, and sustainable development. Socially constructed determinants can contribute to women’s disempowerment. For example: insecure land and tenure rights; obstructed access to natural resource assets; limited opportunities for participating in decision-making; lack of access to markets, capital, training, and technologies; and the double burden of responsibilities inside and outside the household. This results in a lost opportunity for sustainable development.
The human rights of the elderly is a topic that is somewhat neglected. This paper seeks to provide an introduction to the challenges raised by the category of humanity represented by older persons. Developing a human rights regime that is adapted to the needs of the elderly should be seen as part of a larger fragmentation of the human rights project.
The author offers presentation of the elderly population as a distinct group in society and one that raises specific dilemmas in terms of rights. It highlights some existing domestic and international efforts to better take into account this reality. It looks at a few rights that raise particularly acute dilemmas in the case of the elderly and suggests some ways in which thinking about the elderly requires us to rethink some aspects of human rights.
Nutrition surveillance is expensive and logistically laborious and therefore often non-existent in resource-low countries. Surveillance systems are also constrained by time-consuming and error-prone paper-based data collection followed by manual data entry. Consequently, monitoring of nutrition outcomes in real time and timely response to nutritional crises is often impossible. This new evidence review by Inka Barnett and Jose V Gallegos, funded by Transform Nutrition, outlines how mobile phone technologies could help to address many of these challenges and offer potential benefits.
Many development programs that aim to alleviate poverty and improve investments in human capital consider women’s empowerment a key pathway by which to achieve impact and often target women as their main beneficiaries. Despite this, women’s empowerment dimensions are often not rigorously measured and are at times merely assumed. This paper starts by reflecting on the concept and measurement of women’s empowerment and then reviews some of the structural interventions that aim to influence underlying gender norms in society and eradicate gender discrimination. It then proceeds to review the evidence of the impact of three types of interventions—cash transfer programs, agricultural interventions, and microfinance programs—on women’s empowerment, nutrition, or both.
Qualitative evidence on conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs generally points to positive impacts on women’s empowerment, although quantitative research findings are more heterogenous. CCT programs produce mixed results on long-term nutritional status, and very limited evidence exists of their impacts on micronutrient status. The little evidence available on unconditional cash transters (UCT) indicates mixed impacts on women’s empowerment and positive impacts on nutrition; however, recent reviews comparing CCT and UCT programs have found little difference in terms of their effects on stunting and they have found that conditionality is less important than other factors, such as access to healthcare and child age and sex. Evidence of cash transfer program impacts depending on the gender of the transfer recipient or on the conditionality is also mixed, although CCTs with non-health conditionalities seem to have negative impacts on nutritional status. The impacts of programs based on the gender of the transfer recipient show mixed results, but almost no experimental evidence exists of testing gender-differentiated impacts of a single program.
Agricultural interventions—specifically home gardening and dairy projects—show mixed impacts on women’s empowerment measures such as time, workload, and control over income; but they demonstrate very little impact on nutrition. Implementation modalities are shown to determine differential impacts in terms of empowerment and nutrition outcomes. With regard to the impact of microfinance on women’s empowerment, evidence is also mixed, although more recent reviews do not find any impact on women’s empowerment. The impact of microfinance on nutritional status is mixed, with no evidence of impact on micronutrient status. Across all three types of programs (cash transfer programs, agricultural interventions, and microfinance programs), very little evidence exists on pathways of impact, and evidence is often biased toward a particular region.
The paper ends with a discussion of the findings and remaining evidence gaps and an outline of recommendations for research.
It is widely believed that indigenous culture and tradition are at the root of the human trafficking and forced labour problem in Africa. Adherents to this viewpoint also claim that endogenous as opposed to exogenous forces impede efforts to eradicate the problem. This study employed a loglinear regression model to test the tenability of this claim. It hypothesized an inverse association between indigenous culture/tradition and efforts to combat human trafficking. The hypothesis was rejected. It is shown that anti-trafficking initiatives are less successful where indigenous tradition is dominated, or has been usurped, by imported cultural practices.
China is a key destination country for victims of human trafficking from Viet Nam. UNIAP’s Viet Nam – China Sentinel Surveillance assesses the situation of Vietnamese deportees being returned from China and, using this information, maps trafficking trends and patterns; establishes types and profiles of cross-border trafficking victims; and documents how brokers and traffickers operate to put Vietnamese in exploitative situations. Through the latter half of 2010, UNIAP researchers were deployed to Lang Son, Lao Cai, and Quang Ninh international border checkpoints to conduct site surveys and structured, in depth interviews with a non-representative sample of 93 male and female Vietnamese citizens deported from China.
The research uncovered undocumented labour migration that sometimes involved human trafficking, and sometimes did not. Of the trafficking cases discovered, there were cases of sex trafficking, marriage trafficking, and labour trafficking – all with different patterns, as described in the report.
The report proposes six key recommendations, based on seven key findings. These recommendations include capacity building in trafficking victim identification for frontline responders, refining trafficking prevention and safe migration messaging to include documented tricks of traffickers, strengthening victim protection and services in Vietnam, and strengthening labour recruitment policy and cross-border collaboration on human trafficking.
Globalization is a double-edged sword for human rights, pushing people out of place while giving them a global voice to protest their plight, slicing some traditional bonds while weaving new ones (Brysk ed. 2002). While globalization liberates some from traditional economies and cultures, the worst victims of globalization are usually those whose domestic disempowerment makes them vulnerable to new forms of transnational. Exploitation – all too often, women and children. The emerging international human rights regime, crafted to restrain inter-state abuses like war crimes and governments’ abuse of their own citizens, is challenged to cope with “private wrongs” in which non-state authorities violate vulnerable “people out of place.” (Brysk 2005, Brysk and Shafir 2004) For problems like human trafficking, the best response to this new threat to human rights is to harness the information politics and global civil society dimensions of globalization against the economic displacement and weakening of state protection it generates. But since human rights campaigns operate by “framing and shaming,” the rhetoric of monitoring, scholarship, and advocacy both enables and constrains an effective response. (Brysk 2009)
The problem of human trafficking is one of the best cases of gaining significant international response by framing a complex human rights issue that affects an especially powerless population in simple and powerful rhetoric. It is an issue that literally provides poster children; archetypal innocent victims evoking humanitarian protection. Moreover, attention and policy increased vastly when advocates linked the growing problem to the well-established, powerful frame of slavery. Framing was slightly slowed because trafficking is perpetrated predominantly by non-state actors, but the malefactors are usually identifiable and the causal chain is not complex. Although there are a variety of perpetrators, framing as sex slavery concentrated attention on pariah criminal networks rather than complicit kin. Similarly, the solution component of the frame was sufficient because while leverage over non-state perpetrators is more limited than freeing political prisoners held by a government, states do have a responsibility and theoretical capacity to protect the victims, and are charged with negligence rather than covert sponsorship. Finally, the sex slavery frame provides a match with an unusual coalition of relatively well-positioned transnational religious, feminist, and human rights organizations, bypassing the relatively weaker advocates for other kinds of migrants. But the cost of this effective frame has been to selectively emphasize those aspects of the problem that fit – coercive cross border sexual exploitation of children and chaste women – diminishing attention and response to other affected populations and interrelated abuses and root causes.
The entire trafficking cycle from beginning to end is highly gendered: from the root causes that make women vulnerable to trafficking, to the normalization and implicitness of demand, and the gendered institutional responses and policy approaches to anti-trafficking.
The author argues that the insistence on prioritizing law enforcement, migration and prostitution above human rights as the key factors of anti-trafficking response is to perform a profound misdiagnosis which has lasting and very negative consequences for the women trafficked.
The gendered nature of the trafficking cycle is explored and a response suggested based on lessons learnt during time the author has spent in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Three steps for approaching sex trafficking are outlined: first, a gendered understanding of the problem; secondly, an analysis of how gender affects institutional cultures, and finally, recognition of the agency of the women involved.
(Adapted from source)
Despite the existence of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, older people are not recognised explicitly under the international human rights laws that legally oblige governments to realise the rights of all people. Only one international human rights convention (The International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families) mandates against age discrimination. Commitments to the rights of older people exist, such as with the Madrid International Plan of Action on Ageing (MIPAA). However, they are not legally binding and therefore only impose a moral obligation on governments to implement them.
This publication was produced to strengthen understanding and awareness of the need for a Convention on the Rights of Older Persons. It aims to provide the arguments and tools for engaging stakeholders across the globe in debate about older people’s rights and the role of a convention.
Rising powers such as Brazil, China, India, South Africa, the Gulf states or Turkey have entered the development arena through their expanding relationships with low-income countries (LICs) . A widespread perception is that these countries are establishing new forms of engagement, mainly under a South–South cooperation framework.
One region where this engagement has been increasing more significantly is sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). New economic relationships represent new economic opportunities for African countries, at the same time as challenging existing relationships with traditional OECD partners.
This evidence report aims to understand and measure the engagement of rising powers in SSA. Specifically, it attempts to clarify the importance and nature of their engagement and the distinctiveness of their economic relationships with SSA, among the rising powers themselves and also in relation to traditional OECD donors, and to start analysing their likely development footprint arising from their economic engagement.
The findings of the paper do not suggest the South–South cooperation framework is irrelevant to development impact, but that, given the allocation of flows observed, this framework does not yet appear to be distinctive. It can be argued that this cooperation framework is not only about sector and country allocation of flows, but also about political engagement and cooperation, bilateral frameworks, and how aid and investment projects are selected and implemented.
Containing perspectives from different ILCs around the world, including South Africa, France, Japan and India, this report examines which human rights are most important to older people in each country, and what are the key policy changes required to help older people assert their human rights.
Two centuries after the abolition of the transatlantic slave trade, the ILO estimates that almost 21 million people are victims of forced labour, of which approximately 3.7 million are found in Africa. Most victims are exploited by private individuals or enterprises, while an estimated 2 million are forced to work for state institutions or rebel groups. Those who exact forced labour generate vast illegal profits and deprive workers of the fair share of their labour. Forced labour is often found in sectors which are either unprotected or poorly protected by labour law and where informal employment arrangements are common. Domestic work, agriculture, construction, certain parts of global manufacturing, as well as the sex and entertainment industry are most frequently cited as industries prone to forced labour.
The main goal of this report is to assess the contemporary state of knowledge regarding forced labour, human trafficking and slavery in Africa, as well as to examine efforts to eradicate them.
Many funders have begun to use technology to explore new ways of working together, from casual peer learning to joint funding and strategy development. This report is a story about how new tools - social networking sites, file sharing tools, crowdsourcing systems, data visualisation, wikis, and many others - are changing the way funders collaborate. Aimed at funders in the philanthropic sector it is nevertheless relevant and useful to a wider audience. It is divided into three primary sections:
And while no written document can actively keep pace with all of the continuous changes and developments in technology, the report includes profiles of a sampling of the tools that are now available to give a flavor of the wide diversity and tremendous potential of the new technologies to strengthen philanthropic practice and increase impact on public problems. [summary adapted from authors]