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The authors highlight that, although education has been shown to be a good predictor of productivity, the results demonstrate that the most productive nurses were not those with the highest levels of education. However, those who did not attend any form of in-service training for a prolonged period of time were far less productive than those who had attended training. The authors also conclude that midwives were the most productive category of nurses, in terms of amount of tasks and frequency with which they were performed. They argue that this highlights the importance of midwifery training in the efficient delivery of the Botswana Primary Health Care system.
The paper first provides an overview of the history of debates, ideological perspectives and practice in NFE, and outlines key areas of relationships between NFE and the education field as a whole. It draws on examples from Mali, Mexico, Tanzania, India, Namibia, Burkina Faso, Trinidad and Tobago, Somaliland, Brazil, South Africa and the Latin American Fey y Alegria (Faith and Joy) movement.
The paper then sets out an agenda for action for strategies to support NFE. It suggests that policy makers and development agencies should:
The author argues that to be effective, these efforts must be based on a widespread culture of democratic participation in educational development, and structured by the principles of human rights, equity and social justice.
The paper concludes by setting out areas for further research into non-formal education.
The report describes in detail the different processes, projects and outcomes in each of the four countries under the initiative’s three main themes:
For each country the report reflects on what was successful about the project and the "lessons learned" about the sources of success, the risks and continuing difficulties, and how the programme could be improved.
The report concludes that:
Each project also sought to involve a broad range of parties in establishing clear measurable objectives, with the goal of influencing policy change. The report suggests that greater impact can be leveraged from such projects through working with governments and supporting them in the development of their own approaches to ARSH.
The empirical results indicate that:
The fiscal crisis attributed to aid freezing more evidently influenced government spending in the short run than in the long run. Whereas an aid freeze reduces development expenditure, the reduction in the recurrent expenditure is not only minimal but statistically insignificant. Several reasons can be offered for the weak influence in the long-run period:
The finding of the present paper concurs with most studies on aid fungibility, which argue that foreign aid finances general government spending and not the targeted development activities.
A few lessons regarding how such a process could be more effectively developed to facilitate reconciliation are suggested in the report:
The paper highlights that:
The paper concludes that seen this way, the Doha Round provides a unique opportunity to shift Africa’s negotiation strategy from retaining preferences to demanding reciprocity and from seeking special and differential treatment to building competitiveness.