Looping in the sigmoid colon

Straightening the loop by withdrawing the instrument and desufflating air or suctioning insufflated air. Straightening the loop using external hand pressure and withdrawing the instrument. Looping in the sigmoid colon. a Straightening the loop by withdrawing the instrument and desufflating air or suctioning insufflated air . b Straightening the loop using external hand pressure and withdrawing the instrument.

Mechanisms of Venous Return

The flow of blood back to the heart, called venous return, 1. The pressure gradient. Pressure generated by the heart is the most important force in venous flow, even though it is substantially weaker in the veins than in the arteries. Pressure in the venules ranges from 12 to 18 mmHg, and pressure at the point where the venae cavae enter the heart, called central venous pressure, averages 4.6 mmHg.

Preoperative Testing And Preparation

In the elective or reasonably stable patient, preoperative testing is desirable for planning the approach to the shunt and alerting to the risk of preventable complications. Keep in mind that patients requiring emergency TIPS for catastrophic bleeds may not have time for any preoperative imaging at all. Imaging is focused on the evaluation of patency of the portal vein and hepatic veins and in planning approach to the more challenging patients. Doppler ultrasound is the easiest and least...

Fetal Development

The fetus is the final stage of prenatal development, extending from the end of the eighth week until birth. The organs that formed during the embryonic stage now undergo growth Derivatives of the Three Primary Germ Layers Epidermis hair follicles and piloerector muscles cutaneous glands nervous system adrenal medulla pineal and pituitary glands lens, cornea, and intrinsic muscles of the eye internal and external ear salivary glands epithelia of the nasal cavity, oral cavity, and anal canal...

Right Paramedian Sector

Terminology Committee of the International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association SM Strasberg USA , J Belghiti France , P-A Clavien Switzerland , E Gadzijev Slovenia , JO Garden UK , W-Y Lau China , M Makuuchi Japan , and RW Strong Australia . The Brisbane 2000 Terminology of Liver Anatomy and Resections. HPB 2 333-339,2000 Anatomical Couinaud segments Term referred to Right Hemihepatectomy stipulate -segment 1 Left Hemihepatectomy stipulate -segment 1 Right Hemihepatectomy stipulate -segment 1...

Plaque Assays on A549 Cells for Determination of Adenovirus Titers see Notes 13 and

One day prior to plaque assay, A549 cells are plated at 2.0 x 106 cells 60-mm dish Corning, Falcon . 1. On the day of the plaque assay, dishes of confluent A549 cells are washed with 5 mL of serum-free DMEM for 30-60 min prior to addition of the diluted virus this wash medium is removed immediately before the addition of the virus dilutions. 2. Serial dilutions of virus are made in serum-free DMEM dilutions are done within a laminar flow hood. Virus is diluted in sterile disposable snap-cap...

Rectovestibular Fistulas

Patients with rectovestibular fistulas are frequently erroneously diagnosed as having a rectovaginal fistula. Rectovestibular fistula is by far the most common defect in females, It has an excellent functional prognosis. The precise diagnosis is a clinical one requiring only a meticulous inspection of the newborn genitalia. The clinician observes a normal urethral meatus, a normal vagina, and a third hole in the vestibule, which is the rectovestibular fistula Fig. 21.2 . About 5 of these...

Tight Junctions

A tight junction completely encircles an epithelial cell near its apex and joins it tightly to the neighboring cells, like the plastic harness on a six-pack of soda cans. Proteins in the membranes of two adjacent cells form a zipperlike Plasma membrane Membrane protein Intercellular space Plasma membrane Membrane protein Intercellular space Figure 5.29 Types of Intercellular Junctions. Which of these junctions allows material to pass from one cell directly into the next Figure 5.29 Types of...

Extragenic DNA

Most of the genome, approximately 75 , is extragenic. Around 20 of the genome is single copy DNA which in most cases does not have any known function although some regions appear to be under evolutionary pressure and presumably play an important, but as yet unknown, role 6 . The largest portion of the genome - over 50 - is composed of repetitive DNA 45 of the repetitive DNA is interspersed, with the repeat elements dispersed throughout the genome. The four most common types of interspersed...

DNA Replication

The law of complementary base pairing shows that we can predict the base sequence of one DNA strand if we know the sequence of the other. More importantly, it enables a Saladin Anatomy amp Physiology The Unity of Form and Function, Third Edition 140 Part One Organization of the Body 140 Part One Organization of the Body Figure 4.10 Protein Packaging and Secretion. Some proteins are synthesized by ribosomes on the rough ER and carried in transport vesicles to the nearest cisterna of the Golgi...

Dead Skin and Dust Mites

In the beams of late afternoon sun that shine aslant through a window, you may see tiny white specks floating through the air. Most of these are flakes of dander the dust on top of your bookshelves is largely a film of dead human skin. Composed of protein, this dust in turn supports molds and other microscopic organisms that feed on the skin cells and each other. One of these organisms is the house dust mite, Dermatophagoides6 der-MAT-oh-fah-GOY-deez fig. 6.4 . What wonders may be found in...

Ilium Ischium Pubis Labeling

When seen from a lateral view, several features are apparent in the os coxa. Locate the posterior superior iliac spine and the posterior inferior iliac spine along with the greater sciatic notch, the spine of the ischium, and the lesser sciatic notch. The ischial tuberosity is at the posterior, inferior edge of the ischium. Just anterior to the tuberosity is a strip of bone called the ischial ramus that attaches to the inferior pubic ramus. The body of the pubis is the most anterior part of the...

Inspection and Palpation

The examination begins with an inspection of the perianal region. The patient should be in the left lateral position with his knees bent and pulled up. A simple inspection can detect skin changes, scars, anal skin tags, hemorrhoids, anal fissures, anal venous thromboses, fistula, injuries, or prolapse anal or rectal prolapse . Any findings must be noted later in the examination report. Figures 5.1, 5.2 show examples of pathologies detected during inspection. The diagnostic report...

Human Function

When you have completed this section, you should be able to state the characteristics that distinguish living organisms from nonliving objects explain the importance of defining a reference man and woman define homeostasis and explain why this concept is central to physiology define negative feedback, give an example of it, and explain its importance to homeostasis and define positive feedback and give examples of its beneficial and harmful effects. Why do we consider a growing child to be...

Scientific Method

When you have completed this section, you should be able to describe the inductive and hypothetico-deductive methods of obtaining scientific knowledge describe some aspects of experimental design that help to ensure objective and reliable results and explain what is meant by hypothesis, fact, law, and theory in science. Prior to the seventeenth century, science was done in a haphazard way by a small number of isolated individuals. The philosophers Francis Bacon 1561-1626 in England and Ren...

Review of Key Concepts

Human anatomy, or structure, is studied at gross and microscopic histological levels. 2. The methods of anatomy include dissection, palpation, and imaging techniques such as X rays, sonography, and CT, PET, and MRI scans. 3. Human physiology, or function, is studied by experimental methods, and often by comparison to other species. The Origins of Biomedical Science p. 3 1. Hippocrates and Aristotle first put medicine on a scientific basis by distinguishing natural causes from the...

Lateralization Brain

Figure 14.23 The Primary Motor Cortex precentral gyrus . a Location, superior view. b Motor homunculus, drawn so that body parts are in proportion to the amount of primary motor cortex dedicated to their control. Saladin Anatomy amp I 14. The Brain and Cranial I Text I The McGraw-Hill Physiology The Unity of Nerves Companies, 2003 Form and Function, Third Edition ,7-' Vestibular V 'i pathways Rubrospinal tract relatively insignificant in humans Rubrospinal tract relatively insignificant in...

Higher Brain Functions

When you have completed this section, you should be able to list the types of brain waves and discuss their relationship to sleep and other mental states explain how the brain controls the skeletal muscles identify the parts of the cerebrum that receive and interpret somatic sensory signals identify the parts of the cerebrum that receive and interpret signals from the special senses describe the locations and functions of the language centers discuss the brain regions involved in memory and...

Can Electrical Current to the Brain Treat Chronic Back Pain?

Researchers have demonstrated that they can target one region in the brain with weak electrical current and significantly decrease symptoms associated with chronic low back pain. The electrical current enhances the naturally occurring brain rhythms in that area of the brain. The research results were published in the Journal of Pain and suggest that one day doctors may be able to target parts of the brain with new non-invasive treatments like transcranial alternating current stimulation, or...

Cells of Erythropoiesis Fig 4af

The proerythroblasts, called also pronormoblasts or rubriblasts, are the earliest precursors of erythropoiesis. They range from 15 to 22 im in size and do not yet contain hemoglobin. They typically have a darkly basophilic, often shadowy cytoplasm that sometimes shows pseu-dopodia. The nucleus has a dense, finely honeycombed chromatin structure Fig. 4 a - c . Most proerythroblasts have several at most five indistinct pale blue nucleoli, which disappear as the cell matures. Like all...

How Large Is 5 Mm Polyp

D Instruments left to right for polyp retrieval normal polypectomy snare, grasping forceps, four-pronged grasping forceps, dormia basket. e Polyp trap device. The specimen bag is placed in the trap so that suctioned polyp fragments or small polyps remain hanging in the bag. The bag is cut open with scissors to retrieve the polyp fragments. f Polyp retrieval net. The net is placed over the working channel of the instrument and the polyp or polyp pieces are caught in the net. The polyps are...

Bleeding after debridement

An 89-year-old man with type 2 diabetes of 29 years' duration was taking warfarin. He had dry necrosis of the apex of his right hallux and regularly underwent gentle debridement in the diabetic foot clinic. On one occasion, on the day following debridement, his family noticed that blood was seeping through the dressings on his hallux. Despite rest and elevation the foot continued to bleed and the patient attended casualty. The bleeding was staunched by applying a calcium alginate dressing with...

Diverticulosis and Diverticulitis

Colonic diverticula are fingerlike outpouchings protruding outward from the intestinal lumen. True and pseudodiverticula. A distinction is made between true diverticula and pseudodiverticula. The seldom-occurring true diverticula are present at birth and usually only appear in the right hemicolon. Pseudodiverticula, which occur much more frequently, are acquired. They can be found anywhere in the colon, though they tend to appear in the left hemicolon. True diverticula are characterized by...

Aminergic Receptor Modulators 41 5HT2CR agonists

The 5-HT2C receptor 5HT2CR was identified in 1986 and is widely expressed in the CNS 93 . Several lines of evidence support a role for this receptor in body weight regulation. KO mice exhibit a phenotype characterized by increased body weight relative to wild-type littermates average of 13 increase , increased food intake, and a significantly greater percentage of adipose tissue 48 increase 94 . The non-selective 5HT2CR agonist mCPP was found to reduce food intake in wild-type mice, but not in...

Kailash P Bhatia

HISTORICAL ASPECTS, CLASSIFICATION, AND DEFINITION OF PAROXYSMAL MOVEMENT DISORDERS Mount and Reback 1940 first used the term paroxysmal dystonic choreoathetosis PDC when reporting a 23-year-old man with attacks of choreo dystonia lasting many hours 1 . He was from a family with many others similarly affected 1 . In 1941, Smith and Heersema reported what they called periodic dystonia 2 their cases were probably similar to those of Kertesz 1967 , who introduced the new term paroxysmal...

Ventricular Fibrillation And Pulseless Ventricular Tachycardia

ECGs showing ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia are shown in Figures 6.4 and 6.5 respectively. These arrhythmias are uncommon in children but may be expected in those suffering from hypothermia, poisoning by tricyclic antidepressants and with cardiac disease. The protocol for ventricular fibrillation and pulseless ventricular tachycardia is shown in Figure 6.6. Figure 6.4. Ventricular fibrillation Figure 6.4. Ventricular fibrillation Asynchronous electrical defibrillation...

Edward L Thorndike Reward Learning Theory

Thorndike 1874-1949 , was the most influential non-Pavlovian American behaviorist in the first three decades of the twentieth century. His popular 1898 book, Animal Intelligence, made him one of the earliest internationally renowned American psychologists. However, his subsequent work had a lasting effect on American psychology mainly because it was the professional ''springboard'' for the research of B. F. Skinner. Skinner was Thorndike's most famous and productive student....

Conclusion

The establishment of hybrid Ad vectors incorporating the advantageous properties of other viruses greatly expands their therapeutic potential. In the early 1990s, after the initial decade of proof-of-concept for Ad-mediated gene therapy, the main focus was on limiting the immunogenicity of the vectors to enhance transgene expression. Further restricting the expression of the highly immunogenic late viral transcripts by E4 deletions or by complete deletion of all viral genes in the gutless...

Homologous Recombination with Linear Ad Vector Genome Plasmids

The work by Chartier et al. 60 showed that stable maintenance of plasmids containing the entire Ad viral genome is achieved through the separation of the viral ITRs by the bacterial plasmid backbone, confirming the observations made earlier by Hanahan and Gluzman 64 . This was accomplished by the insertion of the left and right end of the Ad genome in their normal orientation into a colEI-derived bacterial plasmid ppolyll 65 , using conventional cloning techniques. Such a plasmid linearized...

Hybrid Adenoviral Vector Systems

A number of hybrid adenoviral vector systems have been reported in the literature, combining the properties of RV, AAV, and EBV vectors, as well as elements of other Ad serotypes, to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of Ad vectors in vivo. The principal aim of these new hybrid vectors is to overcome the limitations of transient Ad vector retention in infected cells. In addition to the well-documented limitations of Ad vectors Table II , some initially perceived advantageous properties of Ad...

Peter Groitl and Thomas Dobner

This chapter describes a novel strategy that simplifies the generation and production of adenovirus type 5 Ad5 mutants carrying defined mutations in early transcription units 1 E1 and 4 E4 . The strategy involves three recombinant plasmids containing E1 pE1-1235 , E4 pE4-1155 , or the wild-type genome that lacks a portion of E3 pH5 g4100 . To generate recombinant viruses, mutations are first introduced into pE1- and or pE4-transfer plasmids by site-directed mutagenesis. The mutagenized...

Homologous Recombination with Circular Ad Vector Genome Plasmids

Another way to circumvent the need for single cutting sites is obviously to use a circular instead of a linear template for the homologous recombination. However, in that case the selection process will necessarily involve a step of counterselection against the parental Ad plasmid, rendering the selection process more complex than the simple recircularization to be selected for in the systems described above. Two different approaches where the viral backbone is used as a supercoiled circular...

Assay of Human Adenoviruses

Assay of the infectivity of human adenoviruses is an essential procedure in most experimental work on virus-host cell systems as well as for the increasing use of recombinant adenovirus vectors in clinical gene therapy protocols. Methods used for quantitative assay of adenovirus infectivity have relied largely on the plaque assay 1,2 which provides a reliable bioassay for most, but not all, of the adenovirus serotypes. The requirement for the adenovirus plaque assay is a cell type that will...

William S M Wold Ann E Tollefson

Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology Saint Louis University School of Medicine St. Louis, Missouri 2007 Humana Press Inc. 999 Riverview Drive, Suite 208 Totowa, New Jersey 07512 All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, microfilming, recording, or otherwise without written permission from the Publisher. Methods in Molecular Biology is a trademark of...

Hybrid Viral Vectors

The inadequacies of each viral vector system are illustrated in Table II. The negative attributes of one vector, however, generally emphasize the positive attributes of another. Thus most of the criteria defined for a hypothetical perfect gene therapy might actually be met by considering defined properties of the currently available vectors defined in Table II. Hence, although at present no individual virus system alone can meet all the criteria, current research is focusing on combining...

Adenoviral Vectors as Gene Transfer Vectors in the Lung

Animal Models for CF Airway Gene Transfer Studies The generation of CF mouse models was an important step for understanding the physiology of CF disease. There have now been over 10 different mouse models produced displaying a range of CF-associated genetic mutations 39 , Although most of the models reflect the most common human mutation, either a complete gene knockout or a AF508 mutation of the mouse CFTR, other models with less common human mutations (e.g., G551D) have also been reported....

Protocols for the Two Plasmid Rescue System

The remainder of this chapter provides detailed protocols for each of the steps involved in the rescue and propagation of recombinant Ad vectors. A flow chart of these steps is presented in Fig. 7. Briefly, 293 cells are cotransfected with the Ad genomic plasmid and the shuttle plasmid. The recombinant vector is generated by in vivo site-specific recombination between the two plasmids and forms a plaque in the cell monolayer. The plaques are isolated, the virus expanded, and the vector DNA is...

Introdution Adinoviruse

Construction of mouse adenovirus type 1 (MAV-1) mutants has facilitated studies of adenoviral pathogenesis in the natural host. We have isolated viral mutants of MAV-1 early regions 1A (E1A) and 3 (E3) (1-4). These mutants have altered lethality in adult mice, as measured by 50 lethal dose (LD50) assays. E1A mutants have increased sensitivity to type I and type II interferon in vitro relative to wild-type (wt) virus (5). MAV-1 E1A interacts with mouse Sur2, a subunit of mediator complex, and...

Animal Models of Lung Cancer

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-associated mortality in both men and women. Although susceptibility to environmental carcinogens may be predetermined and follow a pattern of autosomal dominant Mendelian inheritance 2, 3 , lung cancer results from an accumulation of acquired genetic mutations 4-6 . In fact, it is suggested that 10-20 genetic mutations may be necessary for the development of lung cancer 7 , although the discrete steps for the progression of a hyperplastic bronchial...

Animal Models of Human Prostate Cancer

After lung cancer, cancer of the prostate (CaP) is the second most common cause of cancer death in American males. A latent disease, many men have prostate cancer cells long before overt signs of the disease are apparent. The annual incidence of CaP is over 100,000 in the United States, of which over 40,000 will die of the disease. Nearly a third of patients present with locally advanced or metastatic disease, and androgen deprivation therapy forms the basis of conventional therapy for the...

The Ankle Joint

The talocrural ankle joint includes two articulations a medial joint between the tibia and talus and a lateral joint between the fibula and talus, both enclosed in one joint capsule fig. 9.25 . The malleoli of the tibia and fibula overhang the talus on each side like a cap and prevent most side-to-side motion fig. 9.26 . The ankle therefore has a more restricted range of motion than the wrist. The ligaments of the ankle include 1 anterior and posterior tibiofibular ligaments, which bind the...

Abnormalities of the Skull Base

The skull base consists of five bones, the paired frontal and temporal bones and the unpaired ethmoid, sphenoid, and occipital bone. It extends from the root of the nose anteriorly to the superior nuchal line posteriorly. The occipital bone, which forms the floor of the posterior fossa, can be divided into three distinct portions the basiocciput, comprising the clivus and jugular tubercles the condyles and the occipital squama. The foramen magnum appears as a large, oval-shaped, median aperture...

Acute Renal Failure Cellular Features of Injury and Repair

Bush Hiroyuki Sakurai Tatsuo Tsukamoto Sanjay K. Nigam Although ischemic acute renal failure ARF is likely the result of many different factors, much tubule injury can be traced back to a number of specific lesions that occur at the cellular level in ischemic polarized epithelial cells. At the onset of an ischemic insult, rapid and dramatic biochemical changes in the cellular environment occur, most notably perturbation of the intracellular levels of ATP and free calcium and increases...

Muscles Acting on the Forearm

The elbow and forearm are capable of four motions flexion, extension, pronation, and supination table 10.12 . The principal flexors are on the anterior side of the humerus and include the superficial biceps brachii45 and 45bi two ceps head brachi arm. Note that biceps is singular, there is no such word as bicep. The plural form is bicipites by-SIP-ih-teez . deeper brachialis see fig. 10.22 table 10.13 . In flexion of the elbow, the biceps elevates the radius while the brachialis elevates the...

Lower inset nerve roots

The dorsal root sensory and ventral root motor unite within the intervertebral foramina to form the mixed spinal nerve see also Figure 5 . The nerve cell bodies for the dorsal root are located in the dorsal root ganglion DRG . Both the roots and the dorsal root ganglion belong to the peripheral nervous system PNS where the Schwann cell forms and maintains the myelin . During early development, the spinal cord is the same length as the vertebral canal and the entering exiting nerve roots...

Collection without mounting

Semen may be collected using an AV but in the absence of a teaser mare or dummy for mounting. Thirteen stallions out of a group of 18 used by Schumacher and Riddell 1986 successfully ejaculated into an AV placed over Fig. 5.22. The specially designed collection area used by the University of Wales Aberystwyth, Institute of Rural Studies to collect from unrestrained, pony stallions. Fig. 5.22. The specially designed collection area used by the University of Wales Aberystwyth, Institute of Rural...

Selective Hepatic Intraarterial Chemotherapy

Chari Hepatic intra-arterial infusion pump HAIP placement provides hepatic specific continuous infusion of chemotherapeutic agents. The chemotherapeutic agents selected for use with HAIP should exhibit a high degree of first pass kinetics in order to minimize systemic toxicity. Agents used include cisplatin, fluodeoxyuridine FUDR , mitomycin C, and Adriamycin. Unresectable hepatic metastatic colorectal carcinoma Liver specific adjuvant chemotherapy following...

Withdrawing the Endoscope and Blind Spots

Compared with advancing the scope, withdrawal after reaching the terminal ileum does not pose any technical difficulties. Close inspection of the colon is made on withdrawal, as is the collection of pathological samples and the performance of any necessary diagnostic or therapeutic interventions biopsy, poly-pectomy, etc. . Slowly withdrawing the instrument and per- Fig. 5.32 Polyp in the proximal rectum. a After endoscopic resection, a small remaining polyp piece was visible from distal next...

Regional Characteristics of Vertebrae

We are now prepared to consider how vertebrae differ from one region of the vertebral column to another and from the generalized anatomy just described. Knowing these variations will enable you to identify the region of the spine from which an isolated vertebra was taken. More importantly, these modifications in form reflect functional differences among the vertebrae. The cervical vertebrae C1-C7 are the smallest and lightest ones other than the coccygeals. The first two C1 and C2 have unique...

The Thoracic Cage

The thoracic cage fig. 8.27 consists of the thoracic vertebrae, sternum, and ribs. It forms a more or less conical enclosure for the lungs and heart and provides attachment for the pectoral girdle and upper limb. It has a broad base and a somewhat narrower superior apex it is rhythmically expanded by the respiratory muscles to create a vacuum that draws air into the lungs. The inferior border of the thoracic cage is formed by a downward arc of the ribs called the costal margin. The ribs protect...

Pectoral Girdle

The pectoral girdle shoulder girdle supports the arm. It consists of two bones on each side of the body the clavicle collarbone and the scapula shoulder blade . The medial end of the clavicle articulates with the sternum at the sternoclavicular joint, and its lateral end articulates with the scapula at the acromioclavicular joint see fig. 8.27 . The scapula also articulates with the humerus at the humeroscapular joint. These are loose attachments that result in a shoulder far more flexible than...

The Second Meiotic Division

The second meiotic division is again subdivided into prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase, denoted this time by 2 in order to differentiate them from those of the first meiotic division. Prophase 2 follows a short interphase prior to the secondary meiotic division. At this time the secondary spermatocytes have spherical nuclei with chromatin flakes of varying sizes. Prophase 2 marks the appearance of another spindle within the cells Kimball, 1983 . As with metaphase 1, metaphase 2 marks...

The First Meiotic Division

The first meiotic division is subdivided into several stages - prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase - usually denoted by 1 e.g. prophase 1 as they are part of the first meiotic division. Prophase is further subdivided into leptotene early prophase , zygotene middle prophase , pachytene, diplotene late prophase and diakinesis. It is a more complicated and slower process than the equivalent stage in mitosis and the prophase of meiosis 2, and so takes up the greatest part of the 18.7 days...

Maturation Phase

Spermatids in the maturation phase are termed Sd. This phase is the final stage of spermiogenesis and also spermatogenesis, resulting in spermatid development. During this phase the manchette continues to migrate caudally, supporting the flagellar canal. The annulus migrates to its permanent site at the junction of the mid-piece and the principal piece, drawing down caudally with it the plasma membrane of the flagellar canal. As a result the flagellar canal shortens and subsequently disappears....

Alteration to surrounding tissue

Tennis or sportman's toe is a brown-black discoloration due to subungual haemorrhage caused by special stresses on the longest toe great toe and or the second toe . Pain is associated with the appearance of the damage. In tennis, this occurs because the player frequently stops abruptly the forward motion of the body propels the toes into the toe box and tip of the footwear. Hard playing surfaces contribute to the injury. In distinction to tennis toe, jogger's toe tends to involve the third,...

Mineral Deposition

Mineral deposition mineralization is a crystallization process in which calcium and phosphate ions, among others, are taken from the blood plasma and deposited in bone tissue. It begins in fetal ossification and continues throughout life. Osteoblasts first produce collagen fibers in a helical pattern along the length of the osteon. These fibers then become encrusted with minerals especially calcium phosphate that harden the matrix. Calcium phosphate crystals do not form unless the product of...

Fractures and Their Repair

There are multiple ways of classifying bone fractures. A stress fracture is a break caused by abnormal trauma to a bone, such as fractures incurred in falls, athletics, and military combat. A pathologic fracture is a break in a bone weakened by some other disease, such as bone cancer or osteoporosis, usually caused by a stress that would not normally fracture a bone. Fractures are also classified according to the direction of the fracture line, whether or not the skin is broken, and whether a...

Interactions Between the Skeletal System and Other Organ Systems

Indicates ways in which this system affects other systems indicates ways in which other systems affect this one Bones lying close to body surfaces shape the skin Initiates synthesis of vitamin D needed for bone deposition Bones provide leverage and sites of attachment for muscles provide calcium needed for muscle contraction Muscles move bones stress produced by muscles affects patterns of ossification and remodeling, as well as shape of mature bones Cranium and vertebral column protect brain...

Structure of a Neuron

There are several varieties of neurons, as we shall see, but a good starting point for discussing neuronal stucture is a motor neuron of the spinal cord fig. 12.4 . The control center of the neuron is its soma,7 also called the cell body or perikaryon8 PERR-ih-CARE -ee-on . It has a single, centrally located nucleus with a large nucleolus. The cytoplasm contains mitochondria, lysosomes, a Golgi complex, numerous inclusions, and an extensive rough endoplasmic reticulum and cytoskeleton. The...

Blood Supply

Although the kidneys account for only 0.4 of the body weight, they receive about 21 of the cardiac output the renal fraction . This attests to their importance in controlling blood volume and composition. The larger divisions of the renal circulation are shown in figure 23.7a. Each kidney is supplied by a renal artery occasionally two or more arising from the aorta. Just before or after entering the hilum, the renal artery divides and eventually gives rise to a few interlobar arteries. One...

The Renal Tubule

The renal uriniferous8 tubule is a duct that leads away from the glomerular capsule and ends at the tip of a medullary pyramid. It is about 3 cm long and divided into four major regions the proximal convoluted tubule, nephron loop, distal convoluted tubule, and collecting duct see fig. 23.5 . Only the first three of these are parts of an individual nephron the collecting duct receives fluid from many nephrons. Each region of the renal tubule has unique physiological properties and roles in the...

Filtration Pressure

Glomerular filtration follows the same principles that govern filtration in other blood capillaries see pp. 761-762 , but there are significant differences in the magnitude of the forces involved The blood hydrostatic pressure BHP is much higher here than elsewhere about 60 mmHg compared with 10 to 15 mmHg in most other capillaries. This results from the fact that the afferent arteriole is substantially Saladin Anatomy amp Physiology The Unity of Form and Function, Third Edition 888 Part Four...

The Eukaryotic Vectors

A large variety of vectors for expression in eukaryotic cells are described in the literature. The different types of plasmids that have been used to express adrenergic receptor in eukaryotic cells can be classified into three groups, specifically monogenic, bigenic, and bicistronic vectors. The general characteristics of these plasmids are depicted in the Fig. 1. Monogenic vectors are the simplest form of expression plasmids. Briefly, they consist of a single transcription unit containing a...

Materials Methods

Viral producer cells, GP293 Clontech , 293FT Invitrogen and GP293-G4 Mizuarai et al., 2001 cell lines were maintained in high glucose DMEM media Sigma supplemented with 10 FBS BioWest , 0.1 mM MEM non-essential amino acids Invitrogen , 2mM L-glutamine Sigma and penicillin-streptomycin Wako on collagen-coated dishes Iwaki . Virus producer cells were transfected with GFP or P-galactosidase lacZ coding virus vector plasmid and appropriate expression plasmids see Table 1 and Results to produce the...

Is Optic Nerve Linked To Brain Or Spinal Cord

Nasal bones, 43, 45, 253, 255 nasal cartilages, 253 nasal cavity, 157,159, 249, 255 nasal conchae, 51, 255, 257 nasal septum, 43, 253 nasolacrimal duct, 159 nasopharynx, 253 neck veins, 225 nephron loop loop of Henle , 293 nerve cell body soma , 37, 105 nerve fibers, sensory, 155 nerve s , 9, 273 abducens, 133 accessory, 133 axillary, 141 cervical, 137 coccygeal, 137 cochlear, 173 cranial, 133 facial, 133 femoral cutaneous, 143 fibular, 145 genitofemoral, 143 glossopharyngeal, 133...

Clinical Examples Make It Relevant

Anatomy and Physiology is fundamentally a textbook of the basic science of the human body. However, students always want to know why all the science is relevant to their career aims. Clinical examples and thought questions make it so. Students can see how the science relates to well-known dysfunctions, and why it is important to know the basics. Dysfunctions also provide windows of insight into the basic concepts, such as the insight that cystic fibrosis gives on the importance of membrane ion...

The Hindbrain and Midbrain

When you have completed this section, you should be able to list the components of the hindbrain and midbrain and their functions discuss the role of the cerebellum in movement and equilibrium define the term brainstem and describe its anatomical relationship to the cerebellum and forebrain and describe the location and functions of the reticular formation. Our study of the brain is organized around the five secondary vesicles of the embryonic brain and their mature derivatives. We proceed in a...

Projection Pathways for Pain

Pain signals from the face travel mainly by way of the trigeminal nerve to the pons, while signals from the neck down travel by way of spinal nerves to the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. They synapse in the dorsal horn with second-order neurons that decussate and ascend the contralateral spinothalamic tract. The gracile fasciculus carries signals for visceral pain. By any of these pathways, pain signals arrive at the thalamus, where they are relayed to neurons that carry them to their final...

Vertebrae Meninges

Spinal cord injuries commonly result from fractures of vertebrae C5 to C6, but never from fractures of L3 to L5. Explain both observations. The spinal cord and brain are enclosed in three fibrous membranes called meninges meh-NIN-jeez singular, meninx2 MEN-inks . These membranes separate the soft tissue of the central nervous system from the bones of the vertebrae and skull. From superficial to deep, they are the dura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater. Saladin Anatomy amp Physiology The...

Contraction

Contraction is the step in which the muscle fiber develops tension and may shorten. Muscles often contract, or develop tension, without shortening, as we see later. How a muscle fiber shortens remained a mystery until sophisticated techniques in electron microscopy enabled cytolo-gists to see the molecular organization of muscle fibers. In 1954, two researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Jean Hanson and Hugh Huxley, found evidence for a model now called the sliding filament...

CNS Modulation of Pain

A person's physical and mental state can greatly affect his or her perception of pain. Many mortally wounded soldiers, for example, report little or no pain. The central nervous system CNS has analgesic8 pain-relieving mechanisms that are just beginning to be understood. The discovery of these mechanisms is tied to the long-known analgesic effects of opium, morphine, and heroin. In 1974, neurophysiologists discovered receptor sites in the brain for these drugs. Since these opiates do not occur...

Descending tracts and corticopontine fibers

The descending pathways that have been described are shown, using the somewhat oblique posterior view of the brainstem see Figure 10 and Figure 40 , along with those cranial nerve nuclei that have a motor component. These pathways will be presented in summary form Cortico-spinal tract see Figure 45 These fibers course in the middle third of the cerebral peduncle, are dispersed in the pontine region between the pontine nuclei, and regroup as a compact bundle in the medulla, situated within the...

Utility of 6Hydroxydopamine Lesioned Rats in the Preclinical Screening of Novel Treatments for Parkinson Disease

Parkinson disease PD is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders, affecting about 1 of people over sixty years of age for review see Bezard et al. 2001 Dauer and Przedborski 2003 Fahn 2003 . The disease got its name from the English neurologist James Parkinson, who first described it in 1817 as a shaking palsy. The characteristic motor symptoms of PD consist of resting tremor, rigidity, hypo- and bradykinesia, and postural abnormalities Gelb et al. 1999 . These symptoms are caused by...

Brainstem and diencephalon ventral view

The brainstem is the lowermost part of the brain and is located above the spinal cord. It can be seen by viewing the brain from below see Figure 15A also Figure OA and Figure OL . This specimen has been obtained by dissecting out the brainstem, and cerebellum, along with the diencephalon a photographic view of this specimen is shown in the next illustration Figure 7 . The dienceph-alon will be described subsequently see Figure 11 and Figure 12 . In the human brain, the brainstem is a relatively...

Figure 65a upper midbrain crosssection

The identifying features of this cross-section of the mid-brain include the cerebral peduncle ventrally, with the substantia nigra posterior to it. The aqueduct is surrounded by the periaqueductal gray. The remainder of the midbrain is the tegmentum, with nuclei and tracts. Dorsally, behind the aqueduct, is a colliculus. The descending fiber systems are segregated within the cerebral peduncles see Figure 45, Figure 46, and Figure 48 . The substantia nigra consists, in fact, of two functionally...

Pain temperature crude touch

This pathway carries the modalities of pain and temperature and a form of touch sensation called crude or light touch. The sensations of itch and tickle, and other forms of sensation e.g., sexual are likely carried in this system. In the periphery the receptors are usually simply free nerve endings, without any specialization. These incoming fibers sometimes called the first order neuron enter the spinal cord and synapse in the dorsal horn see Figure 4 and Figure 32 . There are many collaterals...

Sagittal view schematic

This is a schematic drawing of the brainstem seen in a midsagittal view see Figure 17 and Figure 18 . This view is being presented because it is one that is commonly used to portray the brainstem. The learner should try to correlate this view with the ventral view shown in the previous diagram. This schematic also will be shown in each of the cross-section diagrams, with the exact level indicated, in order to orient the learner to the plane of section through the brainstem. The location of some...

Brain Centers That Regulate Alertness and Fine Tune Cognition

At the back of the brain are circuits that play important roles in regulating alertness and fine-tuning cognitive processes. Systems of the brain that control motivation, memory, and so forth are linked to the brain's alertness and to cycles of wakefulness and sleep. Aspects of the warning system for potential danger continue to operate during sleep so that, for example, a person might awaken from slumber to the smell of smoke or a sudden, unfamiliar sound. Yet for the most part, executive...

Reticular formation organization

The reticular formation, RF, is the name for a group of neurons found throughout the brainstem. Using the ventral view of the brainstem, the reticular formation occupies the central portion or core area of the brainstem from midbrain to medulla see also brainstem cross-sections in Figure 65-Figure 67 . This collection of neurons is a phylogenetically old set of neurons that functions like a network or reticulum, from which it derives its name. The RF receives afferents from most of the sensory...

Reticular formation nuclei

In this diagram, the reticular formation is being viewed from the dorsal posterior perspective see Figure 10 and Figure 40 . Various nuclei of the reticular formation, RF, which have a significant known functional role, are depicted, as well as the descending tracts emanating from some of these nuclei. Functionally, there are afferent and efferent nuclei in the reticular formation and groups of neurons that are distinct because of the catecholamine neurotransmitter used, either serotonin or...

Septal region and limbic midbrain

This illustration provides detailed information about other important parts of the limbic system, the septal region and the limbic midbrain. The pathway that interconnects the hypothalamus and these areas is the medial forebrain bundle. The septal region includes both cortical and subcortical areas that belong to the forebrain. The cortical areas, named the septal cortex, are found under the rostrum of the corpus callosum the thin inferior portion of the corpus callosum, see Figure 17 and...

Poliomyelitis

Poliomyelitis is a viral infection that causes the death of motor neurons in the Anatomy spinal cord and brainstem. During the acute phase of the infection, the virus may infect the cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus, reticular formation, brainstem motor and vestibular nuclei, cerebellar nuclei, and motor neurons of the anterior and lateral horns of the spinal cord, causing an inflammatory reaction. Death of motor neurons may result, leading to muscle atrophy. The motor neurons that survive recover...

Figure 66a upper pons crosssection

This level is presented mainly to allow an understanding of the transition of midbrain to pons. This particular section is taken at the uppermost pontine level, where the trochlear nerve, CN IV, exits below the inferior collicu-lus, see Figure 7 . This is the only cranial nerve that exits posteriorly its fibers cross decussate before exiting see Figure 48 . Anteriorly, the pontine nuclei are beginning to be found. Cortico-pontine fibers will be terminating in the pontine nuclei. From these...

Discriminative touch pain temperature

The sensory fibers include the modalities discriminative touch as well as pain and temperature. The sensory input comes from the face, particularly from the lips, all the mucous membranes inside the mouth, the conjunctiva of the eye, and the teeth. The fiber sizes and degree of myeli-nation are similar to the sensory inputs below the neck. The cell bodies of these fibers are found in the trigeminal ganglion inside the skull. The fibers enter the brainstem along the middle cere-bellar peduncle...

Fraunhofer solar spectrum

Spectrum of neurorehabilitation. The patient's process of functional recovery can be seen in analogy to the solar spectrum with its colours and characteristic Fraunhofer lines. CCI patients show also typical landmarks of different phases of recovery over time. Spectrum of neurorehabilitation reflects the interventions for the complex process of holistic functional rehabilitation over time. Rehabilitation starts after the impact to the brain together with first aid and resuscitation at...

Figure 66c lower pons crosssection

This section is very complex because of the number of nuclei related to the cranial nerves located in the tegmental portion, including CN V, VI, VII, and VIII. Some of the tracts are shifting in position or forming. Anteriorly, the pontine nuclei have all but disappeared, and the fibers of the cortico-spinal tract are regrouping into a more compact bundle, which will become the pyramids in the medulla below . CN V The fibers of the trigeminal nerve carrying pain and temperature, that entered at...

Discriminative touch joint position vibration

This pathway carries the modalities discriminative touch, joint position, and the somewhat artificial sense of vibration from the body. Receptors for these modalities are generally specialized endings in the skin and joint capsule. The axons enter the spinal cord and turn upward, with no synapse see Figure 32 . Those fibers entering below spinal cord level T6 sixth thoracic spinal segmental level form the fasciculus gracilis, the gracile tract those entering above T6, particularly those from...

Figure 65b lower midbrain crosssection

This cross-section includes the cerebral peduncles, still located anteriorly and the substantia nigra located immediately behind these fibers. The unique feature in the lower midbrain is the decussation crossing of the superior cer-ebellar peduncles, which occupies the central area of the section this identifies the section as the inferior collicular level. Posteriorly the aqueduct is surrounded by the peri-aqueductal gray, and behind the aqueduct is the inferior colliculus. Often, the...

Midpons crosssection

This section is taken through the level of the attachment of the trigeminal nerve. Anteriorly, the pontine nuclei and the bundles of cortico-spinal fibers are easily recognized. The pontine cells nuclei and their axons, which cross and then become the middle cerebellar peduncle, are particularly numerous at this level see Figure 55 . The cor-tico-spinal fibers are seen as distinct bundles that are widely dispersed among the pontine nuclei at this level see Figure 45 and Figure 48 . The...

Figure 67c lower medulla crosssection

The medulla seems significantly smaller in size at this level, approaching the size of the spinal cord below. The section is still easily recognized as medullary because of the presence of the pyramids anteriorly the cortico-spinal tract and the adjacent inferior olivary nucleus. The tegmentum contains the cranial nerve nuclei, the reticular formation and the other tracts. The nuclei of CN X and CN XII, as well as the descending nucleus and tract of V, are present as before as in the...

Figure 67a upper medulla crosssection

This section has the characteristic features of the medullary region, namely the pyramids anteriorly with the inferior olivary nucleus situated just laterally and behind. The cortico-spinal voluntary motor fibers from areas 4 and 6 go through the white matter of the hemispheres, funnel via the internal capsule posterior limb , continue through the cerebral peduncles of the midbrain and the pontine region, and emerge as a distinct bundle in the medulla within the pyramids. The cortico-spinal...

Figure 67 midmedulla photographic view

This is a photographic image, enlarged, at the middle level of the medulla, with the cerebellum attached. This specimen shows the principal identifying features of the medulla, the pyramids ventrally on either side of the mid-line and the more laterally placed inferior olivary nucleus, with its scalloped borders. Between the olivary nuclei, on either side of the mid-line, are two dense structures, the medial lemniscus. The other dense tract that is recognizable in this specimen is the inferior...